Entering middle school marks a turning point for students.
If the suspension rate were lowered by 1 percent in one graduating class in California, the state would avoid $180 million in economic losses, researchers at the University of California have found.
District officials say they have responded to concerns about discipline.
Too many California preschool students are suspended, says a group of educators and policymakers.
A disproportionate number of African-American students are suspended or expelled.
School discipline and foster youth practices are targeted in state investigations.
Researchers put the cost at $755,000 for each student who drops out.
School districts are supposed to spend $400 million a year on those services.
California funding formula requires districts to include school climate as a priority.