Credit: Allison Shelley for American Education

The ongoing teacher shortage, exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, means more under-prepared teachers will be in California classrooms when school campuses fully reopen, according to a study released today by the Learning Policy Institute.

A decrease in the number of teacher candidates earning credentials, as well as the possibility of increased retirements and resignations, will make it difficult for schools to hire all the teachers they need, according to the report — “California Teachers and Covid-19: How the Pandemic is Impacting the Teacher Workforce.”

It will be particularly difficult to find teachers for special education, math, science and bilingual education, subjects that historically have had teacher shortages, the report states.

The shortage of teachers could make it difficult to reopen campuses, which are required to have smaller class sizes to accommodate physical distancing. Additional teachers are also needed to tutor students who fell behind academically during distance learning, according to the report.

In a few cases, California school districts that have already reopened campuses have had to close them again because of a shortage of teachers and substitutes.

“The Covid-19 pandemic has further strained an already faltering pipeline of qualified teachers,” said Linda Darling-Hammond, president of both the Learning Policy Institute and the State Board of Education.

Since 2015, teacher shortages have continued to grow across the country, Darling-Hammond said. There has been a sharp decrease in the number of people going into teacher preparation programs as well as high attrition rates, she said. To fill vacancies, school districts hired under qualified teachers working on waivers or on intern, limited-assignment, short-term or provisional intern permits.

Teachers working with provisional intern permits and intern credentials have not completed the testing, coursework and student teaching required for a preliminary or clear credential. Limited assignment permits and waivers allow credentialed teachers to teach outside their subject areas to fill a staffing need.

Because the short-term permits and provisional intern permits can be issued only if a credentialed teacher cannot be found, they are a strong indicator of teacher shortages, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, one of the authors of the report.

Between 2012 and 2019 the number of teachers in the state working with “substandard” credentials increased from 4,724 to 13,912, according to data from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The number working on provisional intern and short-term staffing permits increased seven-fold, Carver-Thomas said.

“These teachers, who have not completed preparation for teaching, are likely to be less knowledgeable about how to close growing learning gaps caused by the pandemic crisis,” states the report.

Researchers from the Learning Policy Institute interviewed school superintendents and human resources administrators from the state’s eight largest school districts and nine of the state’s small rural districts for the report. The districts surveyed serve more than a third of the state’s students, according to researchers.

The school officials said the biggest hurdle to earning a teaching credential for teacher candidates is the required tests, as well as the need for additional financial assistance to complete teacher preparation programs.

Since the pandemic began many teacher candidates have been unable to complete required exams because testing centers were either closed or had a backlog of appointments due to social distancing requirements. Others have not been able to complete student teaching or required coursework because school campuses are closed.

Since last March, when communities went into lockdown because of the Covid-19 outbreak, the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, state legislators and Gov. Gavin Newsom have taken a number of actions designed to help teacher candidates move into the classroom and prevent a worsening of the teacher shortage.

Prior to the pandemic, about 40% of students seeking to become teachers gave up because they failed to pass the required tests at various steps along the path to getting their credential, according to data from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. For prospective math or science teachers, that number was about 50%.

The report’s authors also said that teachers are retiring early or resigning because of the steep learning curve needed to transition to distance and hybrid teaching. Other teachers have indicated they might retire early if in-person instruction begins before they feel safe returning to school campuses, Carver-Thomas said.

Teachers also are leaving the profession because their workloads have increased, causing teacher burnout, according to district officials interviewed for the report. They say teacher workloads have doubled since the pandemic, in part because of the extra hours required to design lesson plans for in-person as well as for distance learning instruction.

A lack of substitute teachers on top of considerable teacher shortages could upend efforts to reopen schools for in-person learning, Carver-Thomas said. The substitute shortage has grown worse during the pandemic, especially for smaller, rural districts.

Substitutes are leaving because they are tired of waiting to be called for the scarce jobs available during distance learning or are uncomfortable with the technology required, according to an EdSource report. Some substitutes in districts that have reopened campuses fear returning to the classroom during the pandemic or can’t find child care for children who are home half the week in hybrid instruction.

“Teacher shortages were not created overnight, nor will they be solved with quick, band-aid solutions,” Carver-Thomas said. “Policymakers should attend to both long-term solutions for growing a high-qualified teacher workforce and to meeting the immediate needs of a state school system reeling from a year of instability and strife.”

The report recommends:

  • The state continue to invest in scholarships for teachers who work in low-income communities or who teach subjects with a shortage of teachers; teacher residency programs; and district programs that help school staff earn a bachelor’s degree and teaching credential.
  • The state reduce the number of tests required to earn a teaching credential and allow teacher candidates to demonstrate their competence with coursework instead of exams, in most cases.
  • School districts hire more teachers and staff to decrease workloads. Offer incentives for substitute teachers, including increasing their pay and paying for their training. School districts should also offer high-quality professional development to support teachers in distance learning and hybrid instruction, among other things.

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  1. Cynthia Peronto 4 weeks ago4 weeks ago

    The state could encourage retirees to return to the classroom by allowing them to continue to collect their pension while earning full wages. It could be an incentive to experienced retirees to return to help out for a few years until shortages are filled.

  2. Bethany 2 months ago2 months ago

    If you want to fix the teacher shortage in California, get districts to pay teacher's higher salaries that are in line with other professions that require the same amount of education and training. Every current plan to solve this crisis has all the bells and whistles to create new programs to train people to become teachers is going to fail. All those programs already exist and no one wants to do them. No one wants … Read More

    If you want to fix the teacher shortage in California, get districts to pay teacher’s higher salaries that are in line with other professions that require the same amount of education and training. Every current plan to solve this crisis has all the bells and whistles to create new programs to train people to become teachers is going to fail. All those programs already exist and no one wants to do them. No one wants to work for a pittance. No one wants to be undervalued and underpaid.

    Teaching used to be a pink collar job, when paying a woman 60 cents on the dollar was acceptable and women had very few other choices. That time has passed. In modern America, women want and deserve to be paid the value of their education and training equal to other professions. This is a gender economics issue.

    There is a silent strike going on. It will continue to prevail until districts, their states, and the federal governments increase teacher salaries at least by 20%. Do your research. The current proposal is going to fail because it does not address the bottom-line problem: low unlivable salaries. No one expects to become a millionaire teaching in a public school classroom, but they do want to be compensated fairly in a profession that requires 6-7 years of training (4-5 yrs BA/educator training plus 2 yrs. BTSA) to earn a clear credential.

    Teachers want to own their homes, raise their families comfortably on a teaching salary, and thus should be paid a competitive salary to do so. It is absolutely disgusting that teachers have to take second jobs to make ends meet and have to live in poverty because they cannot afford to live a middle-class lifestyle on a teacher’s salary. You want “highly qualified” teachers, you need to pay them for that education that is required to qualify for that professional status.

  3. Peter J Kim 3 months ago3 months ago

    Long Term Substitute teachers who take over classrooms for half a year should get paid on holidays. I had the same responsibilities as a regular teacher but did not get paid during long holidays like Chistmas and Thanksgiving. If Long Term subs are getting about half of what credentialed teachers make, then at least pay us through the holidays.

  4. Tom 4 months ago4 months ago

    The shortage would be less if there was not extreme agism in the teaching profession. I have 22 years experience. I moved three years ago, and left the school district I had seniority in so I can care for my father. He passed away. I tried to get re-instated, and they denied me. They don't want to pay experienced teachers. Another school I was at last year, from day one the principal was making … Read More

    The shortage would be less if there was not extreme agism in the teaching profession. I have 22 years experience. I moved three years ago, and left the school district I had seniority in so I can care for my father. He passed away. I tried to get re-instated, and they denied me. They don’t want to pay experienced teachers.

    Another school I was at last year, from day one the principal was making up reasons to get rid of me. Half of her staff were long term subs, right out of college, and female. I am seeing a pattern. There is sexism (against men) and agism in our profession. It is bad, and no one talks about it.

  5. Stone Phillips 5 months ago5 months ago

    It’s to be expected. The world has evolved, teaching in the us has not. The leadership structure and school dynamic have changed little since public education started some 160 years ago. It’s not a very appealing-or very well paying career, to most Americans. Maybe they can import people from poorer countries to do the work. It’s very obvious they have little interest in changing schools.

  6. Terry 6 months ago6 months ago

    California has always been one of the most difficult states in the union for fully certified out-of-state teachers - including those of us with experience - to transfer into. I am fully certified in Pennsylvania in Math, Physical Sciences and Special Education - and I have successfully taught all three at the high school level. When I moved to California and attempted to take up teaching here, I was told I would have to … Read More

    California has always been one of the most difficult states in the union for fully certified out-of-state teachers – including those of us with experience – to transfer into. I am fully certified in Pennsylvania in Math, Physical Sciences and Special Education – and I have successfully taught all three at the high school level. When I moved to California and attempted to take up teaching here, I was told I would have to take more coursework for a clear credential.

    Well, at age 40, I’m not being used to fund the California state college system by retaking coursework I’ve already mastered. I went to work for a healthcare system instead, earning roughly 3x what I would have earned as a teacher. Get your head out of the sand, California schools. You’re not the only game in town.

  7. Kim Fischer-Hayes 7 months ago7 months ago

    Your article is so interesting. Our school board in the San Lorenzo Unified School District in the county of Alameda voted to layoff a 115 certificated positions on Tuesday 3/2. Because they are short supposedly by $8 million so their fix is to cut certificated staff. Makes absolutely no sense.

  8. Deborah 7 months ago7 months ago

    These articles about teacher shortages fail to mention that, in all the populated areas of the state, you actually have a shortage of employment opportunities for teachers. Highly qualified teachers cannot find jobs and are spending years bouncing around in substitute or assistant positions that pay minimum wage. We have earned our credentials, our master’s degrees, our additional authorizations, and we can’t get hired because the districts have declining enrollment. And teachers are not retiring … Read More

    These articles about teacher shortages fail to mention that, in all the populated areas of the state, you actually have a shortage of employment opportunities for teachers. Highly qualified teachers cannot find jobs and are spending years bouncing around in substitute or assistant positions that pay minimum wage. We have earned our credentials, our master’s degrees, our additional authorizations, and we can’t get hired because the districts have declining enrollment.

    And teachers are not retiring in droves. They are going on leave to avoid Covid and letting subs cover them for poverty wages. Then they will return, once vaccinated, and the subs will be kicked to the curb.

    Would I shift gears and go teach a special education class, if that’s where the demand is? Absolutely. But the state would require me to start all over again in a yearlong SPED credential program.

  9. Rod 7 months ago7 months ago

    But I’ve read most public schools will have a 5-10% drop in enrollment due to private school or home school transfers. So it should balance out.

    If not then why not allow as part of a hybrid learning model a few specialized teachers to teach hundreds of students online instead of tying them to 30-35 students per classroom?

  10. Don Wood 7 months ago7 months ago

    If local governments try to reopen schools for face to face learning at the same time, many parents will keep their kids home requiring remote teaching. It will create new demand for two types of teachers, those who specialize in face to face learning in the classroom, and those who specialize in remote teaching using the internet. That could double the pending demand for California teachers.

  11. John Lally 7 months ago7 months ago

    Diana, have you heard anything else on the legislature eliminating the RICA exam?