White students in California more likely to be getting in-person instruction than Black, Latino and Asian students

February 12, 2021

Students inside teacher Carissa Brander’s 1st grade class during one of the school's first days of in-person learning.

As Covid-19 cases drop in California, Black, Latino and Asian students are less likely to be back on campus compared to their white peers, according to an EdSource analysis.

On Friday, nearly a year after schools initially began closing their physical campuses due to Covid-19, the California Department of Public Health released a much-anticipated statewide map illustrating where and to what extent 990 school districts across California are offering in-person instruction.

Districts reported whether elementary, middle and high schools were offering in-person, distance learning or hybrid, a combination of online and in-person instruction.   Only 4% of California students attend elementary, middle or high schools in districts where at least half of the students have access to full time in-person instruction for five days a week, according to an EdSource analysis based on the map data. The vast majority of students (79%) are still in distance learning.  The remaining districts are offering hybrid instruction, a combination of in-person and distance instruction.

It is based on information that school districts, charter and private schools are required to submit to the state beginning on Jan. 25. The map will be regularly updated based on new information received.

“As COVID-19 conditions continue to improve and vaccinations ramp up throughout the state, this map will provide local communities with accessible, up-to-date information on how districts in their communities and beyond are adapting to the pandemic, including safety planning and implementation,” Gov. Gavin Newsom said Friday.

Of the districts that reported to the state, 19% of districts said they are offering in-person instruction in all grades, 18% said they are offering hybrid instruction, 51% said they are offering distance instruction in all grades. Another 12% of districts said they are offering a mixture of  in-person, hybrid or distance learning, depending the grade level.

Across California, many more elementary schools than high schools are offering in-person instruction. Nearly half of all districts with elementary schools have reopened them for in-person or hybrid instruction. High school students are less likely to be on campus. Only 27% of districts with high schools have reopened them to in-person or hybrid instruction.

But there’s a disparity among which groups of students are able to go into school for in-person classes. White students are more likely to have that experience. Nearly 90% of Black students, 85% of Latino students, and 81% of Asian students attend districts that are still primarily in distance learning mode, compared with 64% of white students, according to an EdSource analysis.  The map published the state does provide information on the racial or ethnic background of students in any particular district.  EdSource added the demographic information from the California Department of Education in its analysis in order to show racial and ethnic disparities in access to different forms of instruction.

In addition, schools in districts with high proportions of low-income students and English learners are more likely to be closed for in-person classes than schools in higher income areas. About 80% of students on a free and reduced priced lunch plan, and 80% of English learners are attending schools mostly or entirely in distance learning.

Nearly every public school district is represented on the map, as well as 81% of charter schools and 54% of private schools. Among the districts that responded, 76% of charter schools that serve students in K-5 elementary students are offering instruction via distance learning, compared with 34% of K-5 private schools. And 85% of charter high schools remain in distance learning mode, while 59% of private high schools are offering instruction that way.

The racial and economic disparities in access to in-person learning reflects how Covid-19 is disproportionately affecting different communities. Across the state, Black, Latino and low-income families, as well as people experiencing homelessness, have some of the highest rates of Covid-19, partly because these groups are often more likely to live in dense housing situations or are unable to work at home.

That has caused some school districts to delay reopening plans as parents and staff have expressed concern about high levels of Covid-19 in their communities on top of preexisting safety concerns in schools such as lack of ventilation or even windows in some buildings. Teachers’ unions have also pushed back against reopening unless teachers are vaccinated and other mitigation strategies are in place.

The data comes amid increasing pressure from President Joe Biden and Gov. Newsom to come up with strategies to encourage schools to reopen for in-person instruction. On Friday, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a color-coded guide and a detailed 33-page roadmap to help school districts decide under what conditions they could offer in-person instruction, similar to the color-coded reopening guide that California has in place.

“K-12 schools should be the last settings to close after all other mitigation measures in the community have been employed, and the first to reopen when they can do so safely. Schools should be prioritized for reopening and remaining open for in-person instruction over nonessential businesses and activities,” the guidance reads.

The updated CDC guidance focuses on five mitigation strategies aimed to protect teachers, staff and students from the coronavirus. The strategies are strict mask-wearing, maintaining 6 feet of social distance, frequent hand-washing, proper ventilation, as well as contact tracing and quarantine protocols.

But Newsom’s reopening efforts have run into resistance from numerous directions, and he has yet to forge a consensus on the issue in the Legislature. Newsom had hoped to come to an agreement with legislators this week, but Friday came and went without an announcement on a timetable and conditions for reopening elementary schools.

Parents and teachers in support of the governor’s push for reopening schools worry that students are falling behind academically during distance learning, as well as struggling mentally and socially without their usual supports and friends on campus.

Some are especially worried that middle and high school students will be left out of the push is to open schools, which has so far has focused mostly on elementary-age students. “Locking older children out of the classroom ignores the science and data that shows school closures are impacting kids of every age,” said Ross Novie, a member of Open Schools California, a group of parents who are pushing for a swift and safe reopening of schools. “Schools are an essential public service and should be treated as such — the last institutions to close when cases spike and the first to reopen.”

Elementary-level schools were the first group to be given the green light to reopen last fall if they obtained a waiver from the state.

Clusters of schools offering in-person instruction are concentrated in rural areas, such as northeast California and the Central Valley, as well as in more affluent urban and suburban communities in Orange County, Marin and San Diego.

But across California, reopening schools remains a fraught are of debate, including whether teachers should be vaccinated before they enter their physical classrooms. The teachers’ union representing L.A. Unified has said employees should be vaccinated before they return, for example. But in many counties, it has been a  challenge for teachers to get the vaccine largely due to a lack of supply.





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