In this chart, the horizontal axis shows per capital income, and the vertical axis shows per student spending. High-income, high-spending states like New York are in the upper right, with low-income, low-spending states like Utah in the lower left. California used to consistently be in the upper right, with other high-income, high-spending states like New York. But in the 1990s, the state slowed its investment in education, as did Texas.

Note: The volatile movement of Alaska in the 1970s and '80s reflects the boom-and-bust revenue from the oil industry.

Chart by John Osborn D'Agostino. Updated by Daniel J. Willis, Justin Allen and Yuxuan Xie

Note: Each year in the charts and graphs refers to both the calendar year and the fiscal year. Thus, 2013 incorporated data from the fiscal year 2013-14 (July 1 through June 30) as well as the calendar year 2013.