A lawsuit, filed in 2000, that became a class action lawsuit in 2001. The plaintiffs in Williams argued that the state has a constitutional duty to ensure basic educational equality and contended that California has failed in that duty by not providing thousands of students in public schools with “bare minimum necessities,” defined as textbooks, trained teachers, and safe, clean, uncrowded facilities. The lawsuit further argued that low-income students and students of color are the most likely to bear the burden of inadequate resources. In August 2004 a tentative settlement was reached that included accountability measures (such as empowering county superintendents to intervene in the lowest-performing schools) and about $1.2 billion to make facilities repairs, buy textbooks, create a statewide facilities inventory, and continue the High Priority Schools Grant Program for low-performing schools. Legislation enacted in September 2004 provided the programmatic details and funding necessary to implement the settlement.