An adjective that describes the efficacy of a test. Tests can have content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, consequential validity, and face validity. A test has content validity if it measures what it says it is measuring. Criterion validity, also called predictive validity, occurs if a test predicts something that the test administrators are interested in predicting. For example, the SAT is meant to predict freshman grades in college. Construct validity is used to measure psychological constructs such as intelligence, anxiety, or self-esteem. If a test measures these constructs as it says it is measuring them, it has construct validity. Consequential validity refers to the consequences of a test or inferences made from the test. For example, the consequence of a number of students failing a test may be that teachers change their curriculum. A test has face validity if it appears appropriate or relevant to the test-taker. If a test does not have face validity, the test is compromised and that can affect other kinds of validity as well. (See fair and reliable.)