A process, implemented by the state Commission on Teaching Credentialing (CTC), to certify that teachers are well prepared to enter the classroom. Most candidates must have earned a bachelor’s degree in a noneducation major, passed the California Basic Educational Skills Test (CBEST), and demonstrated subject-matter competence by either passing approved college courses or the state’s subject-matter exam. In addition, they must complete graduate coursework that includes classroom study and student teaching. At the end of this time, the candidate earns a Preliminary Credential, after which time the teacher has five years to earn the Professional Clear Credential by completing additional professional coursework. There are alternative routes to earning a credential, such as internship programs. (See emergency permit.)