Even as the pandemic continues to disrupt the way children learn, California is poised to make a historic investment in its early education system. Championed by Gov. Gavin Newsom and many lawmakers, the new $2.7 billion universal transitional kindergarten program is being hailed by many experts as a game-changer for families in a state with almost 3 million children under the age of 5.
In keeping with President Joe Biden’s vision of universal preschool, this expansion of the current TK program will create more equity in early education, many experts say. Increasing access to preschool may be one of the keys to closing the achievement gap, they say, since about 90% of brain growth happens before kindergarten.
However, there are myriad opinions about how universal transitional kindergarten should be rolled out. While the state’s plan is to implement universal TK through the public school system, some advocates argue the program should also be available through preschools and child care centers in a mixed delivery model that would help bolster the struggling child care industry.
1. What is transitional kindergarten, or TK, and is it mandatory?
TK is a steppingstone between preschool and kindergarten. Both TK and kindergarten are entirely optional. Children are only required to attend school in California once they turn 6. Until that age, it is up to parents to decide whether to enroll their children in preschool or transitional kindergarten or other child care arrangements or keep them at home.
2. Is TK free? How is it paid for?
Children can attend TK at no cost because it is part of California’s K-12 public school system. Districts receive funding for TK students based on average daily attendance, which is the average number of students in attendance over the course of the school year.
3. Why was TK first introduced in California?
TK came about after the Legislature approved the Kindergarten Readiness Act in 2010. Until then, children who were 4 years old on Sept. 1 could still enroll in regular kindergarten as long as they turned 5 by Dec. 2 of that year. But the new law changed that. Beginning in 2012, children had to be 5 by Sept. 1 to enroll in kindergarten.
That left out about 100,000 who had to wait an extra year. In response, transitional kindergarten was established in 2012 to serve those 4-year-olds who would have previously been eligible for kindergarten.
4. What is the difference between the current TK program and the new universal transitional kindergarten program?
Currently, TK serves about 100,000 children, primarily those who turn 5 between Sept. 2 and Dec. 2. These are the students who narrowly miss the cutoff for regular kindergarten. The new $2.7 billion universal TK program, by contrast, will gradually be made available to every 4-year-old in California, eventually serving nearly 400,000 students. It will essentially become California’s version of a universal preschool program, available to all children regardless of income.
5. How long will it take for universal transitional kindergarten to be fully rolled out?
It is expected to be rolled out beginning in the 2022-2023 school year, expanding annually until it is available to all the state’s 4-year-olds by 2025-2026. The plan is to gradually phase in younger students each year. However, some school districts are ahead of the curve, having already expanded TK to most 4-year-olds.
6. How large will the class sizes be?
Small class sizes are optimal to give little kids the attention they need. Individual instruction is a pillar of quality early education, experts say. The ratios for TK are expected to start out at 12 students to 1 teacher or teaching assistant and transition to 10 students to 1 teacher by the 2025-2026 school year. That is about half the size of many current TK classes, many of which rely on parent volunteers to help teachers. Many preschool settings enjoy an even smaller ratio. Head Start, for instance, generally keeps an 8-1 ratio in its preschool programs.
7. How will school districts pay for the new classrooms and facilities necessary to suit small children?
The state has earmarked about $490 million in the latest budget to build new facilities and make adjustments to existing ones, such as building out right-size water fountains and restrooms with pint-size potties and sinks.
8. What are the challenges facing this massive expansion of TK?
Staffing is one of the biggest hurdles ahead. There is already a teacher shortage in the state. California will need an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 new teachers and roughly 25,000 new teaching assistants as transitional kindergarten expands, experts say.
9. What will the credential requirements for TK teachers be?
Currently, TK teachers are required to have a multiple-subject teaching credential, the same credential teachers need for all the elementary grades. By 2023, TK teachers also need to complete an additional 24 units of early childhood education coursework or the equivalent, as deemed by their employer, or they will need to hold a child-development permit.
10. What are the plans for recruiting and training new transitional kindergarten teachers?
The state has allocated $100 million in competitive grants to school districts for recruiting teachers and providing ongoing professional learning. The state is also looking at various options for making it easier to meet the credential requirements.
11. What will TK teachers get paid?
That is ultimately determined by districts, but typically, TK teachers are paid the same as kindergarten teachers. It should be noted that K-12 teachers generally earn about 38% more than preschool teachers and child care workers, according to the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment at the University of California, Berkeley. That wage disparity helps explain why 17% of the state’s early childhood educators live in poverty, experts say.
12. Is there a pathway for preschool teachers, a workforce that’s predominately women of color, to move into TK careers?
The state’s Commission on Teacher Credentialing has developed a proposal that would create a pathway for preschool teacher permit holders to gain the preparation they need to teach TK without completing all the requirements for a multiple-subject teaching credential.
Right now, about 49% of early childhood teachers in child care centers have a bachelor’s degree or higher, according to Berkeley’s Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.
13. Will TK be a full-day or a half-day program?
Universal TK, like kindergarten, is a local choice of full-day or part-day. However, the state’s new Expanded Learning Opportunities Program requires that local educational agencies offer a nine-hour school day including before and after class services.
14. Do children in universal TK have to meet the same vaccination requirements as in regular kindergarten?
Yes. The same vaccination criteria apply.
To get more reports like this one, click here to sign up for EdSource’s no-cost daily email on latest developments in education.
We welcome your comments. All comments are moderated for civility, relevance and other considerations. Click here for EdSource's Comments Policy.
Victoria Leyva 8 months ago8 months ago
Can I please get a list of the standards for UTK? And can I get some clarification, ETK will no longer be available, correct? TK is now the new UTK? This year I have ETK/TK, my principal decided to called it UTK, is this correct?
Cheryl Barkinskiy 10 months ago10 months ago
I wanted to know when and how to sign up for the lottery for your school. My daughter will be of age next 2023-2024 school year to start transitional kindergarten and would like to apply. We live in Tarzana. Thank you!
ALisa 1 year ago1 year ago
I have recently learned that some districts in the state have already extended the age for universal TK to all four year olds; however our district is stating that this is not the case and the cutoff is turning 4 by February. So is it up to the individual districts or led by a state choice?
Patricia Romar 1 year ago1 year ago
Several districts are making TK/Kinder combo classes to save money, which makes it extremely difficult to teach TK the way is supposed to be taught. Are combo classes going to be allowed?
DS 1 year ago1 year ago
As a Preschool Teacher, my comment is that we along with our parents are the first learning foundation for most of the children that pass on to TK and Kindergarten and yet the rate of pay is such a vast difference. When will this be rectified so that we will be able to make a decent living and not be considered as low income? Again, we are teaching social/emotional skills as well as the well-rounded … Read More
As a Preschool Teacher, my comment is that we along with our parents are the first learning foundation for most of the children that pass on to TK and Kindergarten and yet the rate of pay is such a vast difference. When will this be rectified so that we will be able to make a decent living and not be considered as low income?
Again, we are teaching social/emotional skills as well as the well-rounded child which prepares them for the next level of learning. I have been told many times by kindergarten teachers that they can usually tell when a child has had preschool because they have the necessary transitional skills to enter into the classroom. Why not improve upon the Universal Transitioning Skills we already have in Head Start!
cristina fickewirth 1 year ago1 year ago
I am a Head Start teacher with a Bachelor’s of Science in early childhood education. I would like to know what my options are in the changes to early childhood ( grants, credentials…) so that I may prepare myself to meet the opportunity of advancement in my profession and better serve the children in my class.
Mindy Camacho 2 years ago2 years ago
I have so many questions. In Preschool kids have to have a rest time...will that go away? In Preschool the children have to be supervised in the bathroom, is that going to change? There are some kids in this age group that are not independent bathroom users. Will they be allowed to be in TK? Will ECE teachers with Teacher Permits and higher, be able to teach TK? Some do not have BA's. … Read More
I have so many questions.
In Preschool kids have to have a rest time…will that go away?
In Preschool the children have to be supervised in the bathroom, is that going to change?
There are some kids in this age group that are not independent bathroom users. Will they be allowed to be in TK?
Will ECE teachers with Teacher Permits and higher, be able to teach TK? Some do not have BA’s.
Some ECE teachers with permits do have BA’s, but not with an educational major. Will they be able to teach TK or will they have to get a multiple subject credential?
What is being put in place to get k-5 teachers trained in ECE?
What is being put in place to get ECE teachers the needed K-5 credential?
Lauret Gallagher 2 years ago2 years ago
The continued voluntary only status of kindergarten makes no sense. How are the deficits a student who entered 1st grade without any prior schooling to be addressed? Kindergarten should be made as mandatory as 1st grade!
Kat Tatsu 2 years ago2 years ago
Lauret: there is no research that early entry into traditional kindergarten better prepares learners for life long success. Traditional adult led learning environments may indoctrinate children into how to sit, how to raise their hands to go to the bathroom, how to memorize for the test, but it does not provide them with any long term cognitive advantages. That is why we continue to celebrate that Kindergarten be optional....the research is clear. We need to … Read More
Lauret: there is no research that early entry into traditional kindergarten better prepares learners for life long success. Traditional adult led learning environments may indoctrinate children into how to sit, how to raise their hands to go to the bathroom, how to memorize for the test, but it does not provide them with any long term cognitive advantages. That is why we continue to celebrate that Kindergarten be optional….the research is clear. We need to support the best quality day cars and ECE centers that we can, with care providers who are educated in the specific developmental needs of very young children, not put little children into public schools designed for older children.
Lisa R 2 years ago2 years ago
My public school district currently has a five hour day for both TK and kindergarten. Before and after school care is optional and offered by outside providers. Please explain what the nine hour day will look like. Who will be providing the extra hours of care, where will that happen? Thank you
MR 2 years ago2 years ago
Where can I get more information about the pathway for CA teachers to become a TK teacher?
Kim Reed 2 years ago2 years ago
The article mentions that the ratio will be 12 students to 1 teacher. Is this correct?