Credit: Allison Shelley for American Education
A fifth grade student watches a lesson on her computer during school.

While parents and state officials are pushing to fully reopen campuses this fall, some families are fearful of sending their kids back into classrooms too soon. But options for distance learning this fall are unclear across the state.

Gov. Gavin Newsom has said he expects schools to fully reopen after the distance learning statute expires on June 30 and that students who want to continue with remote learning can pursue existing independent study plans. But some are critical of independent study. Although schools receive funding for students in independent study, some say the model has been used to push low-achieving students out of schools and lack accountability over academic experiences and outcomes for students.

Now, some parents, education and civil rights advocacy groups are urging Newsom to extend and strengthen the 2020-21 distance learning provisions for the upcoming school year.

“Pandemic recovery isn’t happening in a uniform way. There’s a much larger impact on low-income communities, and we want to make sure they have high-quality distance learning opportunities if they need it,” said Victor Leung, director of education equity at the ACLU Foundation of Southern California. “We have had lots of folks in independent study (pre-pandemic), and it hasn’t provided high-quality instruction. It’s seen as a way to push students out of school.”

Many districts are now asking parents what they want for fall to figure out how many online students they can expect. What remains unclear, however, is how districts can set up online programs for groups of students within an independent study framework that was initially meant for one-off circumstances.

Under current law, the state funds school districts based on their average daily attendance in the current or prior school year, whichever is higher, and that includes students both physically in classrooms and those enrolled in an independent study program.

For the 2020-21 school year, California lawmakers created a third alternative — distance learning. But when that option ends this month “students will need to be back in a classroom setting or participating in an independent study program to generate funding,” legislative analyst Ken Kapphahn said.

But after a year of trauma and uncertainty, some parents are still unsure about a full return to in-person instruction. In a May survey of 1,006 public school parents by the National Parents Union, just over half of respondents (56%) said they want a choice between in-person and remote learning, with the rest saying they were ready to go back to full in-person instruction.

As districts prepare for a return to in-person instruction, there should be clear guidance for distance learning as well so students who aren’t ready to go back are not lumped into low-quality independent study options, said Gloria Corral, president of the Parent Institute for Quality Education, a California-based parent advocacy organization.

Schools hoping to hold onto students who might otherwise leave for a private or online charter school are now preparing distance learning options.

Prior to the pandemic, there were just under 50 virtual schools. This year, according to the California Department of Education, 46 additional programs announced they intend to open by fall, nearing doubling the number of non-charter virtual schools in the state. Virtual schools are fully online public schools overseen by a school district, in contrast to an online charter school, which must be approved by a district but operates independently. They are now launching in several districts, including West Contra Costa Unified, Davis Joint Unified, Azusa Unified and the state’s largest school district, Los Angeles Unified.

Some districts don’t have virtual schools and instead only offer independent study. Those who are pushing for a remote option say that independent study does not provide the same quality of instruction that parents would expect after the last year of distance learning.

“It’s like fitting a square peg into a round hole. Independent study isn’t set up for this systemic delivery of classes to a group of students, it’s more for individual needs,” said John Affeldt, managing attorney at Public Advocates.

Unlike the distance learning requirements set up for the 2020-21 school year, independent study does not require peer interaction, and teachers do not always need to have a credential in the field of instruction for the assigned class. It also does not set a minimum amount of instructional time with a teacher or require districts to provide adequate technology.

California lawmakers are currently discussing options for remote learning as part of the 2021-22 state budget, which must be finalized by June 30.

The latest budget proposals would create additional requirements for districts offering independent study, including providing the necessary technology and curriculum students need, recording daily participation and interaction with teachers and creating processes to re-engage students who fall behind academically. Schools would also have to provide live interaction between independent study students and teachers at least once per week, plus document daily participation. Current law does not require schools to verify whether students completed independent study coursework each day, but they must verify whether the assigned work was completed by a set date.

But advocates say that the proposed changes to independent study fall short of the robust distance learning programs they think districts should be able to offer students.

“The quality of independent study would be patently insufficient as currently proposed by the Governor because it requires less synchronous instruction than required during distance learning this year,” a coalition of equity groups said in a May 25 letter to Newsom. Synchronous instruction refers to live instruction either in-person or online via video.

Many parents and teachers will be relieved to leave a difficult year of distance learning behind. But many districts are sticking with distance learning models for summer school. And students who have thrived in a remote setting, plus those still feeling the ramifications of the pandemic, are now scrambling for high-quality options this fall when schools fully resume in-person instruction.

For his senior year, Isaiah Vega wants to be back on campus at Edison High School in Fresno next fall. Although he has been vaccinated, he’s nervous about potentially bringing home Covid-19 and losing another family member to the virus that took his grandmother last December.

“I prefer to be in class, and if there are vaccine requirements I would feel really safe. But if there’s not a vaccine requirement, it’s up in the air,” said Vega, who has yet to make a firm decision about this fall. “I have to care for my grandpa. I don’t want to pass it on and go through what happened with my grandma.”

By prioritizing in-person instruction and leaving out options for families who prefer distance learning, the state risks creating a “dual-track system of education” where students who are able to attend in person receive far more rigorous learning opportunities and supervision than those who cannot, Leung said.

Newsom and other lawmakers, however, have remained firm about leaving distance learning in the past. This year, many students and teachers struggled to connect and forge meaningful learning experiences online, whether it was due to technology barriers or other reasons for disengagement.

“I’m a parent of two and a former classroom teacher. Kids learn best in the classroom. I don’t see us doing anything legislatively that would allow for the practices that occurred this year to happen next year. I don’t support that,” said Patrick O’Donnell, D-Long Beach, chairman of the Assembly Education Committee.

Dozens of districts are moving ahead on an individual basis as negotiations continue among state lawmakers.

Davis Joint Unified School District announced this spring that it will be launching a new fully virtual school through its existing independent study program. The school will be open to any student in the district and will include daily live instruction, small-group work and bimonthly check-ins with families.

“We see a clear path within the independent study program,” said John Bowes, superintendent of Davis Joint Unified, adding that the new virtual school will exist in addition to the district’s homeschool and hybrid independent study plan, which includes a mix of small in-person classes and at-home study time.

L.A. Unified Superintendent Austin Beutner said he expects the district’s proposed online options to be based on locality. For example, the Boyle Heights area would have an online third grade and an online algebra class, the Los Angeles Times reported. District officials for Los Angeles Unified said other details are still being planned and that “an interview would be premature at this time.”

Assemblyman Phil Ting, D-San Francisco, applauded the efforts of districts that have announced they will fully reopen in the fall, specifically calling out Los Angeles Unified this past week. But he would not elaborate when asked how the district will legally be able to pull off reopening and distance learning.

“Distance learning was challenging for a lot of families,” said Corral, of the Parent Institute for Quality Education. “But we have to make sure districts have a clear process and provide information to families so they can ask questions before they can make enrollment decisions.”

To get more reports like this one, click here to sign up for EdSource’s no-cost daily email on latest developments in education.

Share Article

Comments (13)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * *

Comments Policy

We welcome your comments. All comments are moderated for civility, relevance and other considerations. Click here for EdSource's Comments Policy.

  1. Patrick Xing 2 months ago2 months ago

    Sign this petition if you hope that schools should offer virtual learning! http://chng.it/gHVv2jqH

  2. Karen Boven 2 months ago2 months ago

    Well - my two elementary kids have been back to in-person school since July 19 and as of August 7, my 6th grade daughter is on her second week of modified quarantine due to weekly discoveries of Covid-positive students. In person school is putting families at risk because the kids are no longer able to socially distance in classrooms and while eating. Testing takes 3+ days to return results; meanwhile sick kids are exposing others … Read More

    Well – my two elementary kids have been back to in-person school since July 19 and as of August 7, my 6th grade daughter is on her second week of modified quarantine due to weekly discoveries of Covid-positive students. In person school is putting families at risk because the kids are no longer able to socially distance in classrooms and while eating. Testing takes 3+ days to return results; meanwhile sick kids are exposing others and family members unknowingly.

    Single parents are losing their on-site after-care options due to the modified quarantine, as well. This current form of in person schooling is frankly absurd given the transmissivity and severity of delta variant infections among unvaccinated populations (and all kids in grade 6 or below fall into this category by default). It’s like a really bad Petri dish experiment: My third grader walks to her classroom wondering, “Am I going to be next?” to get Covid, when we have diligently socially distanced at home for more than 18 months waiting for a vaccine to be developed suitable for children. Why put their lives at risk unnecessarily? Of a quality distance learning program so we can enable proper social distancing for those kids and teachers who must be in the classroom. Keep everyone safe.

  3. Adeline 2 months ago2 months ago

    I am a 70 year old cancer survivor with a pre-existing condition and 2 grandkids that live with me one of which is in 2nd grade and the other is 3 years old. My daughter, son and son in-law also live with me and 3 of us have autoimmune conditions. Therefore attending in-person school for my granddaughters is not an option due to the fact that they are under 12 years old and ineligible … Read More

    I am a 70 year old cancer survivor with a pre-existing condition and 2 grandkids that live with me one of which is in 2nd grade and the other is 3 years old. My daughter, son and son in-law also live with me and 3 of us have autoimmune conditions. Therefore attending in-person school for my granddaughters is not an option due to the fact that they are under 12 years old and ineligible to be vaccinated for COVID-19.

    Last year my granddaughter had a wonderful 1st grade teacher who did an excellent job of online teaching, engaging and incorporating music, exercise, art and song into her teaching. This helped keep the kids stay on task and made it fun while also meeting curriculum goals and testing. She also had the assistance of an aide, computer teacher and PE teacher. My granddaughter was still able to see her classmates that she bonded with in kindergarten during the beginning of the pandemic at Ehrhardt Elementary School through Elk Grove Unified School District.

    The fact that this new variant is looking for people that are unvaccinated is horrifying. I worry that we as adults do not necessarily think of children 1-11 years old as the unvaccinated people that can get it or pass it on to family members at home that are vulnerable or school employees and staff and friends. I agree that upgrades and more teacher interaction between students and teachers need to occur with accountability and that once all our kids are vaccinated, we would be more than willing to send our kids back to school in-person. I would not want my kids to be taught by an instructor who has not been vaccinated.

    As a retired kinder teacher who is a lifetime member of the NEA, CTA & CRTA teachers need to be vaccinated to stop the spread because I see this as a community, city, state and world health issue. For me it is a no-brainer. Sending my grandkids to school does not guarantee that they are safe from the virus or the long-term effects of it. Nor does it guarantee they will not die from the virus or bring it home to those of us that are health-compromised. This is a public health crisis for all of us.

  4. Theresa White 2 months ago2 months ago

    I am not sending my son to public school. First of all he has liver disease and mutated cells. I suffer from (and have in the past) paracardidis and heart disease. I have suffered and survived cancer & Chemotherapy, and the spread of COVID 19 to my child and/or to myself is certain death. Now, there are so many more students and parents alike even grand-parents raising kids that have similar or worse … Read More

    I am not sending my son to public school. First of all he has liver disease and mutated cells. I suffer from (and have in the past) paracardidis and heart disease. I have suffered and survived cancer & Chemotherapy, and the spread of COVID 19 to my child and/or to myself is certain death.

    Now, there are so many more students and parents alike even grand-parents raising kids that have similar or worse conditions, and you all want every child in schools. Well it is my Civil Right to ask for and receive it. Thank you

  5. Annie 2 months ago2 months ago

    Please offer a virtual option. Our local school district said, they will not offer independent study at local sites and that we have to un-enroll our kids from their current school. Next, we were told to fill out a special independent study option through the county office. No online classes, no resources, no MacBook; the school secretary said we will receive a paper packet each week – that is all. We love our … Read More

    Please offer a virtual option. Our local school district said, they will not offer independent study at local sites and that we have to un-enroll our kids from their current school. Next, we were told to fill out a special independent study option through the county office. No online classes, no resources, no MacBook; the school secretary said we will receive a paper packet each week – that is all.

    We love our school and are just heart-broken. It feels upsettingly discriminatory to be forced out while choosing to wait on a vaccine for our kids. Just as the option to return should be open to all, so should the choice to remain home until vaccines are available for our youngest children.

    Our fingers are crossed, however. If things remain as they are now, I will have to homeschool this year with very limited resources. We were also told we had to sign a form committing to not returning for a year? Meaning that if they do get vaccinated in January, they can not return this year. How is that legal?

  6. marco 3 months ago3 months ago

    Assuming that the state declines to extend the waiver that has allowed districts to require distance learning, then, sure, the small number of students/parents that want to continue remote learning should have the option. But that can't mean that every district and every school would be required to provide the option. Where a district doesn't offer a virtual school, the County Office of Education should ensure that there is at least one online virtual school … Read More

    Assuming that the state declines to extend the waiver that has allowed districts to require distance learning, then, sure, the small number of students/parents that want to continue remote learning should have the option. But that can’t mean that every district and every school would be required to provide the option.

    Where a district doesn’t offer a virtual school, the County Office of Education should ensure that there is at least one online virtual school available for inter-district transfer within the county, or if that’s truly not feasible that there is an online charter school available. Simple enough.

  7. Gina 4 months ago4 months ago

    My child stayed in Distance Learning throughout her school year and excelled. She is above reading-level and math level. She did great and still participated in the community at her school. Now that distance learning will no longer be an option, I am conflicted with sending her back to in person without being vaccinated since she is only 7. I believe we are moving too quickly without acknowledging the potential risks of a … Read More

    My child stayed in Distance Learning throughout her school year and excelled. She is above reading-level and math level. She did great and still participated in the community at her school.

    Now that distance learning will no longer be an option, I am conflicted with sending her back to in person without being vaccinated since she is only 7. I believe we are moving too quickly without acknowledging the potential risks of a fall surge with the new variants. There should be a step by step protocol for districts. I think hybrid learning should be implemented until elementary kids can get fully vaccinated.

    I am concerned that schools will drop the mask mandate for elementary teachers and students when she returns in the fall. I am also concerned that elementary schools will no longer enforce any social distancing guidelines due to being on a full day schedule. I am also concerned that my school district will not require teachers and staff to be vaccinated.

    All of these safety measures should be communicated by our state government and guidelines should be articulated to parents. I am only reading about a return to in person learning without any discussion of what safety procedures will be implemented in the fall. Every attempt at safety should be in place before Newsom decides to make in person learning the only viable option.

  8. Christopher A Ross 4 months ago4 months ago

    A little too late for me. My children's education is too important to put on hold waiting for a group of adults to decide their fate. Especially when the CDC said in September to have kids back in class. Took the chance and enrolled in a private school. Got test results back. My child scored in the 95th percentile for kids his age. Couldn't have made it without fearless private … Read More

    A little too late for me. My children’s education is too important to put on hold waiting for a group of adults to decide their fate. Especially when the CDC said in September to have kids back in class. Took the chance and enrolled in a private school. Got test results back. My child scored in the 95th percentile for kids his age. Couldn’t have made it without fearless private educators who did the right thing and taught our children in person.

    Replies

    • John Fensterwald 4 months ago4 months ago

      Christopher,
      It’s obviously your choice on where to send you children. But to be clear (I thought the story was), students will be back in person full-time this fall. There is no question about that. The issue in the story is what to offer the presumably small percentage of students who prefer distance learning or have to be remote for health reasons.

    • Stephen 1 month ago1 month ago

      I think you are totally wrong. You just are just worried about your kids’ study. But you don’t know how dangerous the Covid is. If your child get this, their life is gone. Health is more important than learning

  9. JudAU 4 months ago4 months ago

    I’d like to see a vaccine requirement for all eligible parties In the fall. That would certainly make more people feel safe and the state has that authority.

    No vaccine? Stay home.

  10. bobak.tamaddon@gmail.com 4 months ago4 months ago

    We have vaccine mandates for a variety of diseases; every year students have to present a full and formal vaccine report to be admitted to CA schools. Covid vaccine mandate should be no different. This will allow more and more students to return. The math is as clear as day, but by turning the covid vaccine into a political wedge issue, Republicans have prevented many institutions from committing to a mandate. As soon as the … Read More

    We have vaccine mandates for a variety of diseases; every year students have to present a full and formal vaccine report to be admitted to CA schools.

    Covid vaccine mandate should be no different. This will allow more and more students to return. The math is as clear as day, but by turning the covid vaccine into a political wedge issue, Republicans have prevented many institutions from committing to a mandate. As soon as the FDA has provided permanent approval to the covid vaccines, they should be required in schools, as any other vaccine that is currently required.

    There is no reason to treat the covid vaccine any differently from the vaccines that prevent Measles, Smallpox, Hepatitis, and a variety of other maladies.

  11. Maricela 4 months ago4 months ago

    It's extremely frustrating to continue to read about school districts across California, delaying the full reopening of schools for the fall 2021. There have been schools/districts in other states, across America (and the world!), even charter schools, that were open in fall of 2020, with hybrid learning and/or modified schedules. As a community we need to move beyond the fears and misinformation that permeates adults into thinking schools are not safe for kids to learn. … Read More

    It’s extremely frustrating to continue to read about school districts across California, delaying the full reopening of schools for the fall 2021. There have been schools/districts in other states, across America (and the world!), even charter schools, that were open in fall of 2020, with hybrid learning and/or modified schedules.

    As a community we need to move beyond the fears and misinformation that permeates adults into thinking schools are not safe for kids to learn. Vaccines are readily available for middle/high school kids, and all teachers and staff have a choice to be vaccinated! What more is needed to convince school administrators across California, to open school?
    The social, emotional, and mental health of students and community at large is at stake. If parents are still fearful, then they can decide to still do distance learning. Kids deserve to be in school, we owe them that.