Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II.

That’s the usual three-year sequence of high school math courses for students who want to attend one of the 23 campuses in the California State University system.

But now that list may grow by one. In a controversial move, the CSU is considering requiring a fourth year of high school math of all freshmen applicants. The extra year-long course could be the traditional calculus or more practical alternatives such as statistics, computer science or personal finance, administrators say.

Whatever the courses, advocates say that requiring four years of high school math will make more students ready to tackle mandatory college math courses and improve CSU’s graduation rates.

But critics say they fear the possible harmful impact on underprepared students in low-income and high schools already struggling to find enough math teachers. Skeptics say the change could shut the door to the nation’s largest public university system for some students who don’t have access to 12 grade math classses or the skills to complete them.

Some form of the plan may be introduced for discussion at the CSU Board of Trustees meeting in May, with a vote possibly scheduled at a future session, officials said. If approved, it likely would not take effect until 2025 or so, to allow school districts and families time to get ready, according to CSU administrators. After all, the CSU’s size is enormous: it enrolls about 428,000 undergraduates, including about 90,000 freshman.

Among the plan’s supporters is CSU trustee Christopher J. Steinhauser, who is also superintendent of Long Beach Unified School District. His district already requires four years of math, which can include computer science or statistics courses, for high school graduation. That’s a higher standard than most other California districts.

Despite his initial misgivings, that change has benefited many students by increasing CSU and UC eligibility from 39 percent of the district’s graduates four years ago to 56 percent last year**. **

Steinhauser said he expects schools and students around the state will rise to the occasion if CSU ups its math requirement. CSU should “set high standards and work with K-12 to meet those standards. I just know this will end the opportunity gap that exists in our state so our students can achieve the American Dream,” he said. Even students not heading to college will have better skills for various trades and professions, he added.

In addition, the proposal would bolster other CSU reforms, advocates say. The system recently ended no-credit remedial math and English courses for underprepared students and replaced those with credit-bearing classes that provide extra time and tutoring. More high school math would help more students pass introductory college math, they say.

“As is the case with a second language, mathematical skills decline from lack of use, and it is important that students continue practicing and developing quantitative abilities throughout their academic careers,” declared a seminal 2016 report by the CSU Academic Senate’s Quantitative Reasoning Task Force. That panel recommended adding the high school course yet recognized the change “is an ambitious endeavor — one that will take time, collaboration, resources and most importantly an attention to equity.”

More than two years later, a detailed plan may be unveiled soon. Critics are not waiting.

At the CSU trustees’ March meeting and elsewhere, college access and civil rights organizations have warned the additional requirement could disproportionately hurt youngsters of color in under-resourced high schools that don’t offer a fourth year of math. Too many are at a disadvantage from poor math classes in middle school and not enough counseling in high school, they say. And where, they ask, are all the extra math teachers?

After a string of such speakers, CSU trustee Peter Taylor, who chairs the educational policy committee, publicly told university staff that the possible change “elicits a lot of passion. A lot of people have a lot of concerns. So I hope and I trust you will go about this very carefully, very diligently.”

Among the organizations raising objections is Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), the civil rights group headquartered in Los Angeles. “Unless those disparities and discriminatory effects are fully addressed before its implementation, then we have a major problem,” MALDEF president and general counsel Thomas Saenz told EdSource. He said he doubts that six years is enough time to fix those problems and that MALDEF would consider legal action if CSU moves too quickly.

Similarly, the Campaign for College Opportunity, a policy and advocacy organization in Los Angeles, issued a protest letter. “At a time when California continues to be plagued by wide racial/ethnic gaps in enrollment and success at public four-year universities, our higher education systems must ensure that policies do not unfairly create unnecessary obstacles for students on the way to earning a college degree,” said the letter from the campaign’s president, Michele Siqueiros.

At the trustees’ meeting, Loren Blanchard, the CSU’s executive vice chancellor for academic and student affairs, said he would take into account the critics’ views. While he did not answer point for point, he suggested that many high schools already have courses such as business math, health statistics and computer science and won’t need more faculty.

Now both CSU and the ten-campus University of California system require three years of math and recommend four as part of the so-called A-G courses that make a student with the right grades eligible for admission, although not necessarily at very competitive campuses. State statistics show that about a half of California high school graduates meet all the A-G course requirements for entrance into CSU and UC.

UC is not considering adding a mandatory fourth math year, according to UC Riverside professor Eddie Comeaux, chairman of the board that sets UC admissions standards. Opponents say a CSU change out of step from UC will confuse applicants and families. Plus, some wonder whether a student might be able to take two math courses concurrently during senior year in an effort to cover a gap.

However, advocates of the 4th year of math say many students and CSU applicants already are taking the extra course that goes beyond the three required on the A-G list.

About 75 percent of California’s 12th-graders took a math class in 2016 and about 87 percent of the CSU applicants did in 2016, according to preliminary research by the Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), a nonprofit research organization affiliated with several universities. It is likely that nearly all of those seniors were taking their fourth consecutive year of math, said Michal Kurlaender, a UC Davis education policy professor who is PACE faculty director.

But she noted that the patterns during 12th grade were unevenly distributed among schools and ethnic groups. At about 3 percent of high schools, less than 25 percent of seniors were in any math and at 20 percent of schools, 90 percent or more were. Asian high school seniors showed the highest math-taking rate, about 85 percent, compared to 75 percent of Latinos, 74 percent African Americans and 72 percent whites, her research showed. Still under study are 12th-grade math-taking rates for low-income populations and urban, suburban and rural schools.

Kurlaender said there is strong evidence that more preparation across all four years of high school increases college success. Still, she said she worries “that certain students and certain students who attend certain schools will feel the policy more than others.” Even if high schools find enough extra teachers, some otherwise eligible students may be reluctant to take the courses and thereby shut themselves out of CSU, she said.

Some California high schools already are trying to provide new types of 12th-grade math to keep students engaged and on the college track.

A recent study by WestEd, a San Francisco-based education research and training nonprofit, tracked partnerships among five California public university campuses and various high schools to develop new 12th-grade courses for students who otherwise might have fallen off the math track because they feared calculus. Funded in a competition for state grants, these new courses include a data science course and a wide-ranging one called “Transition to College Level Mathematics.” The report said it was too early to call those efforts a long-term success but noted favorable feedback from teachers and students.

Report co-author Neal Finkelstein, a WestEd senior research scientist, declined to express an opinion about CSU’s math requirement. He said the same goals might be achieved if all high schools mandated four years of math for a diploma. (The state now requires only two years of math but allows districts to set higher standards. Efforts to raise statewide standards have failed.)

Keeping up math skills “is quite productive for students whether they go to the CSU, community college or the workforce,” Finkelstein said.

## Comments (12)

## Comments Policy

We welcome your comments. All comments are moderated for civility, relevance and other considerations. Click here for EdSource's Comments Policy.

Morris White2 weeks ago2 weeks agoSchools that don’t promote four years of math, to me, are just adopting low academic standards.

el2 weeks ago2 weeks agoPrecalculus (or Algebra III) usually comes after Algebra II, not Calculus. Precalculus and trigonometry is one of the most useful and valuable courses for anyone who will use math in future studies. That said, I also am a fan of the idea of teaching more statistics, and statistics is applicable to just about every field. I have no opinion on whether or not CSU admission should require 4 years of math, but I'm horrified to learn … Read More

Precalculus (or Algebra III) usually comes after Algebra II, not Calculus. Precalculus and trigonometry is one of the most useful and valuable courses for anyone who will use math in future studies. That said, I also am a fan of the idea of teaching more statistics, and statistics is applicable to just about every field.

I have no opinion on whether or not CSU admission should require 4 years of math, but I’m horrified to learn that there are high schools in California that don’t offer a fourth year of math as an option. Assuming these are comprehensive, mainstream public high schools, there’s no reason we should accept that. I’d like to know more about these schools, how large they are, and why it is we allow them to continue to be schools if they can’t offer a full curriculum.

Replies

Paul Muench1 week ago1 week agoEdSource just loves using that calculus photo! I’ve remarked on that photo being a mismatch with the article content at least twice before. But this is the first time I’ve seen the photo and content mismatch with California’s actual math course sequence.

Jbm2 weeks ago2 weeks agoFor those pursuing a math or science degree, 4 years of mathematics sounds like an excellent idea. Otherwise, it’s a waste of time.

Replies

Shawn1 week ago1 week ago4 years of “math”. The fourth year can be math, computer science or personal finance.

SD Parent2 weeks ago2 weeks agoOne could get whiplash following the roller coaster ride of math curriculum and course progression in California. The real problem is that students are not being taught math well in K-12. It would be better to focus on effective K-12 math instruction than expect students to suddenly understand math after a 4th year of mediocre instruction in high school. It wasn't that long ago that the state adopted Common Core Math and then forced … Read More

One could get whiplash following the roller coaster ride of math curriculum and course progression in California. The real problem is that students are not being taught math well in K-12. It would be better to focus on effective K-12 math instruction than expect students to suddenly understand math after a 4th year of mediocre instruction in high school.

It wasn’t that long ago that the state adopted Common Core Math and then forced a slow-down, essentially “dumbing down” the progression of students through the Algebra I-Geometry-Algebra II (or in the case of San Diego Unified, Integrated Math 1-3) by starting Algebra I in 9th grade. Later, the state decried remediation of math at the CSUs because it slowed down CSU graduation rates and made remedial students feel bad because they weren’t earning credits. Now the CSUs are effectively saying that high schools need to teach students math before they arrive at college by offering a 4th year of math. And so it goes…

For the policymakers who haven’t been in the trenches in decades, math instruction is struggling in part because teacher professional development (PD) for Common Core was largely mediocre. In SDUSD, PD in math consisted of grade-level or subject-level PLCs (professional learning communities) at each school, often with the blind leading the blind to develop their own curriculum. It is clear from statewide (and our district) CAASPP scores that the resulting instruction hasn’t been effective. Creating statewide best practices and accountability around math instruction would help create the incentive to do better.

Meanwhile, it is also worth noting that four years of math doesn’t ensure math continuity. Many of the high schools in SDUSD have adopted the “4×4” schedule: a student takes four, year-long equivalent classes each semester. The motivation was to allow remediation (e.g. if you didn’t pass Algebra I in the fall semester, you could take it again in the spring), but if a student passes math classes the first time, he could be done with “four years” of math at the end of his sophomore year and still have a 2-year math gap before starting college.

Finally, in response to Loren Blanchard, it is worth remembering that teachers are allocated to school sites on a strict student-teacher ratio, so it’s not like there are teachers with “room” to pick up any additional class. Furthermore, high school teachers are subject credentialed, so it’s not like the teacher who is teaching AP Psychology is now qualified to teach statistics or computer science. And there

isa math teacher shortage. (After an early retirement incentive in the spring of 2017, several SDUSD high schools had non-credential folks or subs teaching math well into the 2017-18 school year.) So what Blanchard is really suggesting is a high school teacher who is multi-subject credentialed with some sort of “math” credential. Good luck finding that.Zeev Wurman2 weeks ago2 weeks agoI wonderfully-sounding foolish idea. CSU doesn't need more than today's 3 years that already include Algebra 1&2 and Geometry. Certainly not for majors in movie-making, history, or communications. And the STEM-intending students can--and do--take pre-calc or calc as the fourth year already. The problem with three years of math is not that the expected level of knowledge is too low, but that too many students do not meet existing expectations despite formally passing the required courses. … Read More

I wonderfully-sounding foolish idea.

CSU doesn’t need more than today’s 3 years that already include Algebra 1&2 and Geometry. Certainly not for majors in movie-making, history, or communications. And the STEM-intending students can–and do–take pre-calc or calc as the fourth year already. The problem with three years of math is not that the expected level of knowledge is too low, but that too many students do not meet existing expectations despite formally passing the required courses. They don’t meet the expectations because of lack of preparedness, not because they were not pushed to take another year of math to which they are unprepared.

Current CSU2 weeks ago2 weeks agoAs as current CSU student, I see too many peers who struggle because of not being prepared for math. To the critics against this policy, there is always the community college route with transfer for students who are not ready. This can be very cost-effective plus still allows for graduation in 4 years. CSU and our communities would be better served by adopting this policy.

CarolineSF2 weeks ago2 weeks agoI’m a veteran mainstream journalist. Most of my newsroom colleagues would freak at the thought of taking another year of math, as we’re a famously number-phobic bunch. Considering that, it’ll be interesting to see how this proposal is covered in the MSM.

Replies

John Fensterwald2 weeks ago2 weeks agoThis mainstream journalist wishes he had taken statistics as a high school senior, and thinks most grads would benefit from it. That would be one of the options, as I understand.

Lyn2 weeks ago2 weeks agoI think that the 4th year of math is very important. However, making it a requirement to attend a CSU or UC is probably not the answer. Rather, it should be up to each school district to decide based on their resources. I believe that there is too much emphasis on ensuring all high school seniors go to a university right out of high school. The Community College system is excellent; … Read More

I think that the 4th year of math is very important. However, making it a requirement to attend a CSU or UC is probably not the answer. Rather, it should be up to each school district to decide based on their resources.

I believe that there is too much emphasis on ensuring all high school seniors go to a university right out of high school. The Community College system is excellent; it allows math and English skills to improve and allows for maturing of the student. Students can transfer to a university more confidently and will be admitted based on their CC grade point average instead of SAT/ACT scores.

Too many students are made to feel “less than” if they don’t go directly into a 4 year university. Even with free tuition, the room/board and incidental costs that come with 4 years at a university are costly. Why not stay home (if possible) and attend the local community college? No need for unnecessary debt if one does not have enough money saved for the full 4 years.

Sonja Sevcik2 weeks ago2 weeks agoYes - four years of math as soon as possible + four years of science (or at least two years of science & two years of computer science) and four years of humanities (with a year of World, US history, and Government, a minimum requirement). Why wouldn't we strive to give every child the opportunity to receive a great education? Why would that hurt anyone if we strive for a better education? … Read More

Yes – four years of math as soon as possible + four years of science (or at least two years of science & two years of computer science) and four years of humanities (with a year of World, US history, and Government, a minimum requirement).

Why wouldn’t we strive to give every child the opportunity to receive a great education? Why would that hurt anyone if we strive for a better education? If a student struggles with the load or a class, add a tutoring period and small group attention focused on study skills, proctored by engaged teachers for those students! Hurry, our kids are better than the bar being set.