For decades, California 4th-graders have studied the Golden State: its geography, people and history. Now, historians and Native American teachers are pushing to broaden that curriculum to include more on the culture and history of the state’s original inhabitants.
“For so many years, the story of California Indians has never really been part of classrooms,” said Rose Borunda, an education professor at Sacramento State University and a coordinator of the California Indian History Curriculum Coalition. “Our story has never been present. It’s often sidestepped because it’s inconvenient. But it’s the truth, and students should learn it.”
Borunda, who is Native American, and her colleagues are working to educate teachers statewide on the history of California’s indigenous people, who were among the most populous and diverse Native Americans in North America. Their curriculum would complement the state’s History-Social Science framework, which was updated two years ago.
The changes are part of a broader effort to expand Native California curriculum in the state’s K-12 schools. In October, Gov. Jerry Brown signed AB 738, which requires the state’s Instructional Quality Commission — which advises the State Board of Education on curriculum — to create a Native American studies class curriculum for high schools that will satisfy the elective course requirements for admission to the University of California and California State University. Earlier this year, Brown signed AB 2016, which creates an elective high school ethnic studies course that could also include Native American history and culture. The State Board of Education is required to adopt the ethnic studies curriculum by March 2020.
The story of Native Californians begins at least 10,000 years ago when people first began settling along the West Coast. Before the arrival of Spanish colonists in the 1700s, Native Californians numbered more than 300,000 and lived more than 200 tribes, dwelling in almost every part of the state. Because tribes in California were geographically isolated from the rest of the continent, many tribes had no contact with Native Americans outside California, and some tribes — especially those in remote areas — were among the last in North America to encounter Europeans.
All California public school students, for at least 50 years, have spent time during 4th grade learning the state’s history, with a focus on the Spanish missions — the 21 outposts established by Father Junipero Serra, soldiers and settlers in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Students created missions out of sugar cubes and popsicle sticks, visited missions and sometimes learned a version of the mission story that emphasized the Spanish perspective, rather than that of native people.
While the missions marked the beginning of colonization in California, they were also the beginning of the end for most tribes, as thousands were enslaved by missionaries, killed by settlers over the next few decades or died of diseases introduced by Europeans. Within 70 years of the Spanish arrival, the native population dropped to fewer than 70,000, according to the state’s Native American Heritage Commission.
In 2016, when the state updated its History-Social Studies framework, the mission chapter was broadened to include more information about Native Californians, how they lived before colonization and how they were affected by the arrival of settlers. Now, missions are taught as “sites of conflict, conquest and forced labor,” according to the standards. “It is clear that even though missionaries brought agriculture, the Spanish language and culture, and Christianity to the native population, American Indians suffered in many California missions.”
The standards now emphasize broader themes in the mission era, such as immigration and how cultures change when they come together and colonization’s impact on the environment, such as the introduction of farming, livestock and invasive species.
“We changed it because it was the right thing to do,” said Nancy McTygue, executive director of the California History-Social Science Project at UC Davis, which oversaw the framework revisions.
“It’s better history teaching. It’s more responsible. Whatever the topic, we wanted students to have a more nuanced understanding of the past, so they can make more informed interpretations.”
Attempts to bring more native perspectives to public school history curriculum began with the Native American rights movement of the 1970s, said Gregg Castro, a consultant on Native American site preservation and member of the California Indian History Curriculum Coalition.
Those efforts have progressed in fits and starts, he said. Some tribes have worked closely with local elementary schools for years, providing lesson plans and guest speakers to supplement the 4th-grade California history curriculum. Other schools have done less, and in fact some still teach popsicle-stick mission projects despite the framework overhaul, McTygue said.
Separately, Assemblyman Phil Ting successfully advocated for a $5 million grant in the 2017-18 state budget for the California Historical Society and McTygue’s group to create free online materials, such as original documents and photos, for K-12 teachers to implement the new history-social science framework, including the history and culture of Native Californians.
“This $5 million investment by the state will provide students and their teachers with the resources to learn about — and from — the people, places and events that have shaped California for thousands of years,” Ting said.
Around the same time the history-social studies framework was being updated, Borunda began to get involved. She became interested when the subject of Native American curriculum in general came up at a meeting of the California Indian Conference, an annual meeting of Native Californians to network and discuss issues affecting their communities.
“A man was at one of these meetings who’s a teacher. He started crying because he was told he had to teach the California mission project,” Borunda said. “It stuck with me. I thought, well, here I am, an education professor. Maybe I can change this.”
Working with her colleagues at Sacramento State, as well as tribal members, teachers and historians, Borunda began compiling free online lesson plans for elementary teachers to supplement what’s already in the framework. The coalition has also hosted several statewide teacher forums to share curriculum and strategies for teaching Native Californian history and culture.
The topic is complicated, Castro said. California tribes are as diverse as the state’s geography, so no single lesson plan fits all tribes, she said. California tribes spoke hundreds of languages and dialects and each had a culture adapted to the areas in which they lived: the desert, the mountains, the Central Valley or the coast.
But perhaps the more challenging aspect of the curriculum is teaching about the enslavement, disease and slaughter that befell native people after the Spanish arrival, McTygue and Castro said.
“It’s a difficult period in American history, and it’s especially hard to teach to 9-year-olds,” McTygue said, referring to the age of students when they study California history in 4th grade. The difficulties are in part due to a lack of materials about the pre-Spanish era, she said, and in part because of the sensitive nature of the subject matter.
Even the terminology poses challenges. For example, using the word “genocide” can be problematic, because thousands of Native Americans still live in California and have thriving cultures. “Genocide” implies that the native culture was completely erased, Castro said. In fact, California has more Native Americans — 362,801 — than any other state, according to the most recent Census data.
Focusing on the mission period can also detract from 10,000 years of Native Californian history and culture, he said. After all, there’s a lot more to native people than the colonization story, he said.
“A lot of it comes down to terminology,” he said. “Instead of using the word ‘genocide,’ you can say, ‘We were forced to work at the missions. We didn’t want to be there and we suffered for it.’ ”
Castro suggests that elementary teachers look at broad topic areas, such as salmon or fire, and incorporate multiple academic subjects into their lessons. For example, a unit on salmon would include native traditions and lore about salmon, as well as lessons on the fish biology, river ecosystems and seasons. A unit on fire would cover how native people burned fields to enrich the soil, manage vegetation to attract wildlife and prevent larger wildfires. This unit would include lessons on ecology, land management and how humans alter their environment.
“It can be done quite well, in a non-traumatizing way, without shading the truth,” he said. “Right now there is abysmal ignorance out there because people just weren’t taught about Native Californians in school. But people need to know this. They need to know what happened, that we’re still here, that there’s still things to be saved.”
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Debra Souza 4 years ago4 years ago
Thank you for all your hard work on this project in the past and going forward. So important for this knowledge to be available to everyone. When I was growing up, I was fortunate to live in North Fork, California where we had the Mono Indians. The Tribal Chairwoman, Rosalie Bethel, would come to our school on a regular basis and teach us about Mono life. Basket gathering and weaving, arrow … Read More
Thank you for all your hard work on this project in the past and going forward. So important for this knowledge to be available to everyone. When I was growing up, I was fortunate to live in North Fork, California where we had the Mono Indians. The Tribal Chairwoman, Rosalie Bethel, would come to our school on a regular basis and teach us about Mono life. Basket gathering and weaving, arrow head making, acorn gathering and how to make meza. We learned about soap root and so many other Mono things. It was fascinating and amazing. Today, I work for the Chukchansi Tribe as a Project Director for a SAMHSA grant for youth. I am sure Rosalie’s influence had something to do with that.
Sheli Hampl 4 years ago4 years ago
What about the Gold Rush era? Yes, it was all genocide. Good article but disagree with side-stepping genocide. Agree difficult to teach to 4th graders but can be done. But, dumb question: do we have to teach it in the 4th grade?? Hate the concept of a mission project or any project on the mission era. Totally inappropriate. Pick another era to teach research skills/project. And I actually disagree with schools that field trips … Read More
What about the Gold Rush era? Yes, it was all genocide. Good article but disagree with side-stepping genocide. Agree difficult to teach to 4th graders but can be done. But, dumb question: do we have to teach it in the 4th grade?? Hate the concept of a mission project or any project on the mission era. Totally inappropriate. Pick another era to teach research skills/project.
And I actually disagree with schools that field trips to the missions – at least the one my son’s class had to go to with people dressed as smiling padres and a soldier, teaching them adobe brick and candle making….ie their slave chores! Insane to me. Go to a mission to see where the slave labor camp was, but that is it. This whole method of teaching this era needs to be gutted.
Jaaly Schommer 4 years ago4 years ago
This is an awesome article that is aiming to bring California Native American history to the young minds in our state! Governor Jerry Brown and a group of teachers have worked to transform fourth grade history to include biocultural diversity, traditional ecological knowledge, life cycle rituals and so much more. This movement is integral in keeping the Native American indigenous science in existence. I am so happy that there is going to be the real … Read More
This is an awesome article that is aiming to bring California Native American history to the young minds in our state! Governor Jerry Brown and a group of teachers have worked to transform fourth grade history to include biocultural diversity, traditional ecological knowledge, life cycle rituals and so much more. This movement is integral in keeping the Native American indigenous science in existence. I am so happy that there is going to be the real side of history taught to our youth, it is of the essence that we help people understand the precontact Native American tribes compared to the resilience of the Native American tribes in California after Western influences.
Ellen Stewart 5 years ago5 years ago
Camai! Well done California. All states should be doing this. The state of Washington has passed this into law and are currently working it into our curriculum, it’s taking quite some time though. Keep up the great work:D
Michael Curtiss 5 years ago5 years ago
“Island of the Blue Dolphins” is, as far as I know, the only book about Californian Native Americans. It was a good read as a kid, but certainly not the typical California Native American history.
Kathy Fraser 3 years ago3 years ago
Here is a start for educators (of students, or themselves!): https://www.csus.edu/college/education/engagement/indian-curriculum.html
A. Moreno 5 years ago5 years ago
It is way overdue!, and about time! something like this was implemented in our state of California. We are noted for being the most “progressive” state, so let’s do what we can to be the best in all ways possible.
eugene streett 5 years ago5 years ago
Hopefully this will become a model for all the states. It is embarrassing how we only teach history from a white lens, how we skip all of the history of the aboriginal peoples pf the Americas. I am not ashamed of my European heritage but as a nation we have ignored, pushed to the outer margins the history, the stories of real Americans. I remember seeing the film "500 Nations" and asking how come … Read More
Hopefully this will become a model for all the states. It is embarrassing how we only teach history from a white lens, how we skip all of the history of the aboriginal peoples pf the Americas. I am not ashamed of my European heritage but as a nation we have ignored, pushed to the outer margins the history, the stories of real Americans. I remember seeing the film “500 Nations” and asking how come we never learned any of this. As archaeology continues to push our understanding of Native American history, teachers in all states must demand that curriculums include more than a cursory glance at our real history. Thanks for igniting a fire.
Ellen Stewart 5 years ago5 years ago
Actually, Washington state passed it into law years ago (http://www.k12.wa.us/IndianEd/TribalSovereignty/) and are now working it into our curriculum now. It’s taking quite a while to get it rolled out. Would be interesting to see what other states out there have already passed there own programs or are looking to do this at least. Or do they even have it on there radar?
Tom Timar 5 years ago5 years ago
About time. It has taken much too long to get there.
paul r. jones 5 years ago5 years ago
Is the new curriculum going to tell the story that as of the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, there are no more "Indians" within the original meaning of the United States Constitution, only U.S./State citizens with Indian ancestry/race entitled to no more and no less than every other non-Indian U.S./State citizen. Or, there is no such thing under the U.S. Constitution as an "Indian reservation." Or, there is no such thing … Read More
Is the new curriculum going to tell the story that as of the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, there are no more “Indians” within the original meaning of the United States Constitution, only U.S./State citizens with Indian ancestry/race entitled to no more and no less than every other non-Indian U.S./State citizen.
Or, there is no such thing under the U.S. Constitution as an “Indian reservation.” Or, there is no such thing under the United States Constitution as a ‘federally recognized Indian tribe’. In short, is the new curriculum geared to perpetuate the hoax or teach the fact there are many citizens in the United States with Indian ancestry/race?
Matt McLaughlin 5 years ago5 years ago
As much as we know about DNA why keep using the term Native American? And again, no mention that somebody considered an American Indian is often of Spanish extraction too. This education could be considered anti-Latino.