California’s next governor will have a historic opportunity to address the massive educational equity gap threatening the state’s future prosperity. What’s needed to unlock the full potential of all our children is a new, broadly supported “Master Plan” for investing the riches of the world’s fifth largest economy at every level of public education.
The Getting Down to Facts II studies and other recent reports highlight the powerful headwinds facing the Latino and African-American majority in our schools:
- Much of the K-12 learning gap for low-income Latino and African-American students can be traced back to the lack of high-quality preschool learning opportunities.
- An underfunded K-12 system often perpetuates the learning gaps by offering fewer teachers, administrators, counselors and health professionals than almost anywhere in the United States. One recent study estimated that funding needs to be increased by some $25 billion to meet the state’s education performance goals.
- State support for higher education has dropped from 17 percent of the General Fund in the 1970’s to under 12 percent. Tuition and fees have risen to a level beyond the reach of many, undermining college enrollment and completion for African-Americans and Latinos and leaving the state short a million bachelor’s degrees by 2030.
If we hope to build a prosperous California that will not continue to depend on imported high-skilled labor, the question is not if, but how, the state raise will new revenues to invest across its education system.
Here are a few examples of ideas that are circulating, along with rough estimates of the revenues they would generate for the state’s General Fund (which support the University of California and the California State University systems) and Prop. 98 (the General Fund portion reserved for K-12 and community colleges):
- Progressive forces have gathered the signatures for a 2020 ballot initiative to reform Prop 13 by requiring the regular reassessment of commercial property at fair market value while leaving in place existing protections for residential property. It should raise $11 billion for the general fund and $4.5 billion K-14 education.
- As Warren Buffet famously pointed out, Prop 13’s annual 1 percent cap on property taxes and 2 percent annual limit on increases in reassessed value provide the wealthy a much greater tax break than low- and moderate-income homeowners. It’s worth considering reducing this tax subsidy for the highest value multi-million-dollar properties. ($5 billion to general fund; $2 billion for K-14 education)
- Another Prop 13 amendment that has been floated, including by Governor Schwarzenegger’s Committee on Education Excellence, would bump the annual 1 percent cap on property taxes up 0.1 percent, with the additional 10 percent dedicated to education. ($5-$7 billion to K-14 education)
- Though poor salesmanship helped sink former Gov. Gray Davis, re-instituting the 2 percent Vehicle License Fee that existed from 1948-98 and dedicating everyone’s extra payment to education could bring meaningful new revenues. ($6-8 billion overall; $2.5-3.5 billion to K-14 education)
- Services now make up about 80 percent of California’s economy but most of the state’s income derives from personal income and sales taxes on goods. Though most states impose some type of business and personal services tax, California is one of a handful of states that does not. Legislators are beginning to introduce proposals to tax business services and reduce the sales tax, including an effort this year. Like property taxes, a services tax is less volatile than income taxes. (After sales tax offset, $7 billion to general fund; $3 billion to K-14 education)
- California is the only major oil-producing state that fails to tax the extraction of oil. Maybe taxing oil for our children’s future could finally surmount the industry’s refusal to pony up. ($2 billion directly to K-14 education)
- In the early 2000’s California stopped collecting its own revenue from an estate tax. Some lawmakers have proposed re-imposing a California estate tax consistent with pre-tax reform federal rules ($5 billion to general fund; $2 billion to K-14 education).
- Unlike cities and counties (and most other states), California school districts cannot raise general taxes (like sales or income taxes), only “special taxes” (e.g. regressive parcel taxes) — and those only by two-thirds voter approval instead of a simple majority. Restoring the ability of school boards to institute general taxes with a simple majority (more than 50 percent) would require a constitutional amendment and a mechanism to ensure the state compensates poorer districts that lack the capacity and resources of wealthier ones. Permitting local jurisdictions to raise new revenues outside Prop 98 is probably a key component of the long-term school funding solution. ($12-15 billion for K-12 education).
While raising revenues, the next governor should also commit to a high quality 21st-century data system that integrates PreK-12, higher ed and workforce data. If California does not modernize its ability to track the return on its investment in education, any push for significant new spending will carry with it a major vulnerability. Currently, we are one of only seven states that does not integrate K-12 and higher education data. Connecting and expanding the state’s data systems would better equip California to detect and respond to systemic inequities, performance gaps and shortfalls.
There is no one answer as to how to arrive at an adequately funded public education system. Any comprehensive solution will need to use a mix of measures, some from this list and likely others not yet conceived. Little chance of a systemic attack on California’s educational equity gap exists though without a strong champion in the governor’s seat, one who carries a bold vision and a public will-building agenda to provide the state’s black and brown student majority the best opportunities California can offer.
John Affeldt is a managing attorney at Public Advocates in San Francisco, where he focuses on educational equity issues through litigation, policy advocacy and partnerships with grassroots organizations.
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sonia oconnor 4 years ago4 years ago
I can’t see any push for personal taxes being pushed here, perhaps more state, toll, gas, registration taxes, and a service tax.
Steve Ayon 5 years ago5 years ago
Here is a visualization I developed that displays CAASPP achievement gaps and trends over the last for years for the entire state of California. Use the tabs on top of the visualizations to select the different reports.
Shovland 5 years ago5 years ago
The first thing to do is eliminate a single revenue source to supply 2 unequal systems. One required to follow all sorts of rules, educate everyone at any time and assesss students preferably with the understanding that Income inequality is the primary culprit in the education gap. While the other system of schools is predatory, and with very poor results to justify its’ existence, and no accountability expressly written in the law. Second eliminate the … Read More
The first thing to do is eliminate a single revenue source to supply 2 unequal systems. One required to follow all sorts of rules, educate everyone at any time and assesss students preferably with the understanding that Income inequality is the primary culprit in the education gap. While the other system of schools is predatory, and with very poor results to justify its’ existence, and no accountability expressly written in the law.
Second eliminate the loophole that allows the state government to fill the coffers of the general fund during economic downturns to borrow money against the education fund – while violating the state constitution to “first fund education before anything else”(parapfrase) – and not repaying it on time or only when it can, without interest. Our children’s’ futures are not a lending institutions. Ever!
Hannah MacLaren 5 years ago5 years ago
Part of the dilemma of closing the gap is that the focus is on having schools be the primary means. Unless the school(s) can become fuller service commenty schools providing the society's supports, critical elements will continue to be missed: adequate housing, safe parks and recreational opportunities, libraries, food deserts, family disruptions, incarceration reform, adequate employment opportunities with sufficient compensation...and such. In the absence of these kinds of conditions, at the very least, proper funding … Read More
Part of the dilemma of closing the gap is that the focus is on having schools be the primary means. Unless the school(s) can become fuller service commenty schools providing the society’s supports, critical elements will continue to be missed: adequate housing, safe parks and recreational opportunities, libraries, food deserts, family disruptions, incarceration reform, adequate employment opportunities with sufficient compensation…and such.
In the absence of these kinds of conditions, at the very least, proper funding of schools must address the conditions of the schools as they exist currently. The teachers do need to have smaller classes: 40-50 students in a class does not enable vibrant educational experiences, no matter how brilliant the teacher may be….and for the most part they are brilliant. Students need to have access to caring counselors and support personnel (librarians, social workers, nurses).
Trish Williams, Member, CA State Board of Education 5 years ago5 years ago
Informative, enlightening, motivating. John, this list of options for raising the kind of funding that CA’s public education systems need in order to dramatically improve is a real public service. Hope it gets widely read.
Bill Conrad 5 years ago5 years ago
A Master Plan for California should include a Big Picture that begins with the identification of quality curricula for all subject matter. It is now time to jettison the Balanced Reading Boondoggle for a reading curriculum that emphasizes the science of learning reading that includes explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. There should be an assessment monitoring system for each of these 5 key elements to ensure that all … Read More
A Master Plan for California should include a Big Picture that begins with the identification of quality curricula for all subject matter. It is now time to jettison the Balanced Reading Boondoggle for a reading curriculum that emphasizes the science of learning reading that includes explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. There should be an assessment monitoring system for each of these 5 key elements to ensure that all students are on track for reading by 3rd grade. The fundamental job of the K-12 education system is to ensure that all students can read by the end of third grade.
The Big Picture should also include the indentification of aligned professional practices that school districts should be using every day that involve teachers, princiapls, and district administrators. John Hattine in his book Visible Learning has identified a plethora of high quality teaching professional practices that is a great resources.
The plan should include both formative and summative assessments that teachers can access and use to gauge the quality of student demonstration of key learning standards algined to the Common Core Standards. These assessments should also be able to elicit student misconceptions and errors in thinking that teachers can diagnose and then intervene to address.
Finally, the plan should include robust and easy to interpret data visualizations of both professional practices as well as student outcomes.
Of course, the Master Plan shoud emphasize the reconstruction of the Schools of Education in California to adequately prepare all teachers to be effective in the use of high quality curricula, professional practices and assessments.
This is not magic nor is it sexy. It will go a long way to dispel the current massive fog of education!