Outside the limelight, rural schools face challenges in finding, and keeping, teachers

April 5, 2017

A rural school bus heads out to a campus to pick up students.

Walking through the hallways of Tranquility Elementary School, Principal Matt Kinnunen regularly pokes his head into classrooms to check on his teachers, especially the newer ones.

He asks about their day, assists them with student lessons and offers advice. It’s part of a routine to help them feel valued and supported. And maybe that will keep a few from leaving the small, rural campus in California’s Central Valley, a region hit especially hard by the state’s ongoing teacher shortage.

Kinnunen’s school is one of six that make up Golden Plains Unified, a 1,770-student district 40 miles west of Fresno that spreads across three tiny towns and 16,600 acres of mostly almond, raisin and cotton farms.

For the past few years, Golden Plains’ schools have struggled to recruit and retain teachers – and it’s only getting worse. This reflects a challenge that many rural districts are experiencing. For a range of reasons, include their remoteness, their generally small size and a lack of media coverage, teacher shortages in rural districts have received far less attention than those in inner-city schools. The state’s Department of Education also doesn’t have a system for identifying whether districts are rural, urban or suburban, at least in part because more often than not, a district doesn’t fit neatly into one of those categories.

Currently, 12 of the 84 Golden Plains Unified teachers have either intern credentials or permits, meaning they haven’t finished teacher preparation programs but were hired because of the district’s limited options.

Kinnunen, overseeing the campus in the town of Tranquility, the size of six square blocks with 800 residents, knows the problem well. Two new teachers he hired this summer quit before the first day of classes after they received better last-minute offers elsewhere.

“It’s difficult to attract and keep teachers when they’re pulled and poached away,” Tranquility Elementary Principal Matt Kinnunen said.

To cover the classes, administrators assigned four intern or permit teachers. That represents one-third of Tranquility’s entire teaching staff.

Meanwhile, two veteran teachers have already told him they’re leaving at the end of the school year for jobs in more urban areas closer to their homes. And he still doesn’t know whether another might retire.

“It’s difficult to attract and keep teachers when they’re pulled and poached away,” he said.

Many candidates either reject a job at Golden Plains because they can more easily find work in more urban districts, or they accept a job in the district, then leave after a year or two for districts with better pay or benefits.

“It’s become tougher to develop a consistency of teachers for our students,” said Kinnunen, who grew up in the nearby town of San Joaquin, the son of an alfalfa and wheat farmer.

Help wanted

Golden Plains Unified resembles many rural districts across California struggling with a shortage of qualified teachers, resulting in high rates of underprepared teachers and plenty of vacancies.

Four of the six Golden Plains Unified campuses border sprawling farms that stretch to the horizon. The district’s students are mostly poor and learning English. They live predominantly in the towns of Tranquility, San Joaquin and Helm. The two-lane roads that traverse through the region primarily carry pick-up trucks, tractors and other farm equipment, but don’t have a single traffic light. Packing houses, silos and mills far outnumber restaurants and markets.


Tranquility Elementary Principal Matt Kinnunen fills in for a teacher during a math lesson.

And following several years of the state’s unforgiving drought, dozens of businesses have shuttered, leaving behind empty storefronts and vacant lots. This has caused a surge in families moving around the Central Valley in search of steady work. These factors add more layers to the already tough task of bringing in new teachers.

“Because of our population and our isolation, we used to look for a special type of teacher who could work well in this type of environment,” said Maria Bustos-Flores, director of human resources at Golden Plains Unified.

“We looked for those with incredible patience, with a talent for bringing out the best from students who don’t always have the same opportunities,” she said. “Bilingual teachers were also at the top of our list.”

But now, Golden Plains Unified has trouble finding any type of teacher. Recruiters from the district have spent much of the winter and spring visiting teaching colleges statewide, combing through online job boards, such as EdJoin, and attending regional job fairs, where they set up tables alongside dozens of other districts, who are also starved for new teachers.

“We’ve been recruiting for weeks for next school year and found that most fully credentialed candidates already found jobs elsewhere,” Bustos-Flores said.

That’s forced the district to rely more heavily on hiring intern teachers and those with short-term permits to ensure every classroom is staffed.

Intern teachers are those who get limited training during the summer preceding the school year, and then begin teaching while they work to get their full credential by taking night and weekend classes. Permits can be issued to substitute teachers who don’t need a credential for up to 90 days in order to fill a temporary staffing vacancy. Permit teachers often have just started, or often haven’t begun, teacher training programs. These permits can be renewed after 90 days if the district has yet to hire a fully credentialed replacement. Waivers are given to teachers who are credentialed in one subject, but are assigned to teach another. Golden Plains has no teachers with waivers.

The trend is not unique to Golden Plains. In fact, California’s Commission on Teacher Credentialing issued more than 10,000 permits, waivers and intern credentials last year, double what it did in 2014. Although these teachers still comprise a tiny proportion of the more than 300,000 teachers in California, the fact that their numbers are increasing has raised concerns among educators and researchers.

Note: Golden Plains Unified has no teachers with waivers.               Source: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing






“The most recent evidence shows that… substandard credentials and permits are rapidly increasing,” according to a report released in February by the Learning Policy Institute, a Palo Alto-based research and policy organization. The institute has issued a series of reports and policy briefs for over a year chronicling school districts’ struggle to recruit and retain enough teachers to fill all vacancies.

“There are thousands of students today in classrooms with teachers who are wholly unprepared. Schools in urban and rural areas or with low-income, high-minority, and/or high-English learner student populations may continue to struggle to find qualified teachers,” according to the report.

Golden Plains ranks among the top 100 districts out of the more than 1,000 statewide for the rate of permits and intern credentials based on student enrollment, according to state commission data.

Everyone pitching in

For Golden Plain’s veteran teachers, principals and other staff, working with so many underprepared teachers often means additional work for them.

Kinnunen, the Tranquility principal, said that more than halfway through the school year, his four intern and permit teachers now run their classrooms as efficiently as their veteran peers. But he credits his entire staff for helping them get up to speed.

At the start of the school year, the principal spent much of the school day working with veteran teachers as they mentored those with temporary credentials. They helped them build lessons and offered guidance for how to lead a classroom.

“Veteran teachers have to buy into this because it means extra work on top of their normal class loads,” he said.

Sixth-grade teacher Maria Teresa Fernandez is the veteran Kinnunen often turns to. Fernandez, a Mexican-born immigrant who moved to the country at the age of 11, joined Golden Plains Unified six years ago as a kindergarten teacher.

“It is really hard to see (newer) teachers leave my district after the first year or sometimes after a couple of months,” said Fernandez, who commutes to work from Fresno. “This is heartbreaking for the students because they have to go through the change constantly.”


Maria Teresa Fernandez, a teacher at Tranquility Elementary in the Central Valley, leads her students in a lesson.

“The most rewarding experience I get working in Tranquility is the connection I have with the community,” said Fernandez, a bilingual teacher. “If other teachers build the same connection, then they’re less likely to leave.”

Unique challenges for hiring, retaining teachers

Phoua Vang, a 5th-grade teacher, arrived at San Joaquin Elementary three years ago with an intern credential.

The resident of Clovis, a suburb of Fresno, decided to stay at Golden Plains Unified after she completed her training program because she enjoyed working at a small district and school where all the teachers knew each other, allowing for constant sharing of ideas and best practices.

But a few weeks ago, Vang told her principal that her husband’s job is pulling them away at the end of the year to the city of Modesto, about 150 miles away. Vang later decided to stay at Tranquility through the end of next year.

“It wasn’t a decision based on anything having to do with the district,” she said. “I like my job. I love my students. But for my family, there are better opportunities in more urban communities.”


Fifth-grade teacher Phoua Vang helps her students solve a problem during a recent lesson at Tranquility Elementary in the Central Valley.

That’s the challenge many rural districts now face amid the state’s teacher shortage, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, a researcher at the Learning Policy Institute. The institute has concluded that the teacher shortage is the most severe among rural and inner-city districts. By subject, the institute has found that special education, math, science and bilingual education have the highest demand.

Rural districts have traditionally struggled to compete for teachers with many urban and suburban districts. But following the recession, when thousands of teachers statewide left the profession and fewer students entered teacher training programs, rural districts’ ability to attract candidates sunk even further.

Rural districts tend to have fewer preparation and mentoring programs to help them recruit and retain teachers because their campuses are smaller and more isolated not only from other districts, but also from sister schools within the same district, Carver-Thomas said. That often prevents rural districts from pooling resources, she said. By comparison, districts that employ hundreds or thousands of teachers located in more urban areas can more easily share resources.

Lower starting salaries in rural districts also help syphon candidates away to larger, more urban districts, Carver-Thomas said.

Urban districts generally have to offer higher salaries because of the higher cost of living in those communities. At Golden Plains Unified, the starting teacher salary is currently $40,253, which is comparable to other neighboring rural districts. But it lags behind the $45,000 starting salary at the Fresno Unified School District, part of a region of about 1 million residents, where most of the Golden Plains Unified teachers live.

The district is also losing teachers to retirement faster than it can hire replacements. Sixteen teachers retired last school year, and officials expect just as many this school year. Statewide high retirement rates are outpacing the rates of people entering the profession, with an estimated 25 percent of the state’s teaching workforce expected to retire between 2014 and 2024, according to an October report from the research institute Regional Education Laboratory West at WestEd.

Growing a workforce

Next year, Golden Plains will increase a signing bonus initiative to help encourage more teaching candidates to choose the district.

This school year, all new teachers received a $3,000 signing bonus. For 2017-18, bilingual teachers hired by the district will receive $7,300, while all other new hires will receive $5,000.

“The bonuses can make some difference, but it’s not a long-term solution,” said Bustos-Flores, the district’s director of Human Resources.

The district has also put a stronger focus on growing its workforce from within, by encouraging its students to choose teaching as a profession, then return to the community after they earn their credential.

Officials have discussed forming a teacher career pathway, a high school program that blends academics with hands-on work experience to prepare students for careers as teachers.

In the meantime, teachers, principals and counselors point to success stories of local Golden Plains Unified graduates who now work at the district.

They include Kinnunen, the Tranquility principal, who worked as a chemical salesman after earning an agriculture degree at Fresno State.

“I worked hard for three months, but I felt empty,” he said.

He sought advice from his mother, a Golden Plains Unified teacher then, and began substitute teaching before he earned his credential, then spent eight years in the classroom at San Joaquin Elementary.


Salvador Gomez, a teacher with a temporary credential, answers a student’s question during a recent lesson.

Salvador Gomez, a 7th-grade permit teacher at Tranquility, grew up five minutes from campus.

“When I watch these kids, it’s like I’m watching myself at that age,” he said.

Gomez, the son of immigrant farmworkers, proudly wears his blue-and-yellow “Tranquility Tigers Alumni” T-shirt to class at least once a week.

“By working here, I feel like I’m giving something back to the school that did so much for me as a child,” he said. “Maybe I can serve as inspiration to one or two of my students who might someday decide they want to become Golden Plains teachers too.”

Provisional credentials in California school districts

Districts can hire teachers without a provisional credential, or license, during a teacher shortage. There are three types of provisional credentials: Permit, for those with at least a bachelor's degree, with limited or no teacher training; Intern, for candidates about to complete a credentialing program; and Waiver, for those with a teacher credential in one subject, but assigned to teach another. All figures are for the 2015-16 school year. Districts with no provisionally credentialed teachers are not included in the results. The rate of provisionally credentialed teachers describes how many intern, permit or waiver teachers a district has hired per 1,000 students.

AlamedaAlameda City Unified7160111012.07
AlamedaAlbany City Unified211038223.40
AlamedaBerkeley Unified1150104621.53
AlamedaCastro Valley Unified41093660.53
AlamedaDublin Unified23099650.50
AlamedaEmery Unified0306984.30
AlamedaFremont Unified17170348520.98
AlamedaHayward Unified10201228461.36
AlamedaLivermore Valley Joint Unified7240140522.21
AlamedaNew Haven Unified9140121711.89
AlamedaNewark Unified38060131.83
AlamedaOakland Unified9017130490985.93
AlamedaPiedmont City Unified04027081.48
AlamedaPleasanton Unified4140147541.22
AlamedaSan Leandro Unified66085601.40
AlamedaSan Lorenzo Unified9121119651.84
AmadorAmador County Office of Education40023117.32
AmadorAmador County Unified05038291.31
ButteBiggs Unified1006021.66
ButteButte County Office of Education32011164.48
ButteChico Unified330138490.43
ButteOroville Union High35022273.59
ButteParadise Unified51042891.40
CalaverasCalaveras County Office of Education0305695.27
CalaverasCalaveras Unified26029962.67
CalaverasMark Twain Union Elementary1108042.49
ColusaColusa County Office of Education1203758.00
ColusaColusa Unified01014620.68
ColusaMaxwell Unified1103296.08
ColusaPierce Joint Unified23014863.36
ColusaWilliams Unified22013452.97
Contra CostaAcalanes Union High20055460.36
Contra CostaAntioch Unified10140178741.34
Contra CostaBrentwood Union Elementary23087380.57
Contra CostaByron Union Elementary01021980.45
Contra CostaContra Costa County Office of Education97041923.82
Contra CostaJohn Swett Unified25017543.99
Contra CostaKnightsen Elementary1005341.87
Contra CostaLafayette Elementary10035760.28
Contra CostaLiberty Union High42081850.73
Contra CostaMartinez Unified31041990.95
Contra CostaMoraga Elementary01018860.53
Contra CostaMt. Diablo Unified9320320051.28
Contra CostaOakley Union Elementary512250083.79
Contra CostaOrinda Union Elementary10025370.39
Contra CostaPittsburg Unified3123110761.63
Contra CostaSan Ramon Valley Unified9382322551.52
Contra CostaWalnut Creek Elementary03136131.11
Contra CostaWest Contra Costa Unified593810309733.45
Del NorteDel Norte County Office of Education0205883.40
Del NorteDel Norte County Unified21035720.84
El DoradoBlack Oak Mine Unified02013171.52
El DoradoBuckeye Union Elementary02052180.38
El DoradoEl Dorado County Office of Education5209597.30
El DoradoEl Dorado Union High38066881.64
El DoradoLake Tahoe Unified02039960.50
El DoradoMother Lode Union Elementary01010630.94
El DoradoPioneer Union Elementary01019100.52
El DoradoPlacerville Union Elementary01012770.78
El DoradoPollock Pines Elementary1106972.87
El DoradoRescue Union Elementary14036721.36
FresnoBig Creek Elementary0105916.95
FresnoBurrel Union Elementary35012066.67
FresnoCaruthers Unified03014242.11
FresnoCentral Unified15270157172.67
FresnoClovis Unified16240418830.96
FresnoCoalinga-Huron Unified620144476.07
FresnoFirebaugh-Las Deltas Unified711022667.94
FresnoFowler Unified17025313.16
FresnoFresno County Office of Education77222537.10
FresnoFresno Unified551120734602.27
FresnoGolden Plains Unified111017786.75
FresnoKerman Unified313050643.16
FresnoKings Canyon Joint Unified1019097172.98
FresnoKingsburg Elementary Charter01022520.44
FresnoKingsburg Elementary Charter32022522.22
FresnoKingsburg Joint Union High11011861.69
FresnoLaton Joint Unified27070112.84
FresnoMendota Unified711032155.60
FresnoParlier Unified412033814.73
FresnoRiverdale Joint Unified32016103.11
FresnoSanger Unified4120114381.40
FresnoSelma Unified87065412.29
FresnoSierra Unified01013110.76
FresnoWashington Colony Elementary1004252.35
FresnoWashington Unified48230454.60
FresnoWashington Unified482110121.27
FresnoWestside Elementary0109641.04
GlennCapay Joint Union Elementary1001895.29
GlennGlenn County Office of Education1014584.37
GlennOrland Joint Unified40021831.83
GlennPrinceton Joint Unified1001646.10
GlennWillows Unified10014350.70
HumboldtEureka City Schools01037340.27
HumboldtFerndale Unified1005251.90
HumboldtFortuna Union High10011340.88
HumboldtHydesville Elementary0101975.08
HumboldtLoleta Union Elementary0102913.44
HumboldtMattole Unified1107212.77
HumboldtTrinidad Union Elementary1001775.65
ImperialBrawley Elementary26139112.30
ImperialCalexico Unified815192662.59
ImperialCalipatria Unified56011449.62
ImperialCentral Union High23041201.21
ImperialEl Centro Elementary49062312.09
ImperialHeber Elementary23012184.11
ImperialHoltville Unified48015857.57
ImperialImperial County Office of Education210458527.35
ImperialImperial Unified23040361.24
ImperialMcCabe Union Elementary23013643.67
ImperialMeadows Union Elementary1004592.18
ImperialSan Pasqual Valley Unified0707259.66
ImperialSeeley Union Elementary0103372.97
ImperialWestmorland Union Elementary0103592.79
InyoDeath Valley Unified0102934.48
InyoOwens Valley Unified1117540.00
KernArvin Union36030692.93
KernBakersfield City56843302224.73
KernBeardsley Elementary42017823.37
KernButtonwillow Union Elementary0103792.64
KernCaliente Union Elementary1005318.87
KernDelano Joint Union High624542058.32
KernDelano Union Elementary412074152.16
KernDi Giorgio Elementary1102139.39
KernEdison Elementary42110746.52
KernEl Tejon Unified1207643.93
KernElk Hills Elementary11019610.20
KernFairfax Elementary38025404.33
KernFruitvale Elementary15032371.85
KernGeneral Shafter Elementary21015319.61
KernGreenfield Union39192711.40
KernKern County Office of Education18257446811.19
KernKern Union High School19530380701.89
KernKernville Union Elementary2608779.12
KernLakeside Union21013182.28
KernLamont Elementary28030343.30
KernLost Hills Union Elementary1215547.22
KernMaricopa Unified04021381.87
KernMcFarland Unified315035445.08
KernMojave Unified52227133.32
KernMuroc Joint Unified13019162.09
KernNorris Elementary26040731.96
KernPanama-Buena Vista Union450175450.51
KernRichland Union Elementary42035081.71
KernRio Bravo-Greeley Union Elementary10010400.96
KernRosedale Union Elementary66055142.18
KernSemitropic Elementary0202149.35
KernSierra Sands Unified48849634.03
KernSouth Fork Union12024112.45
KernSouthern Kern Unified518132147.47
KernStandard Elementary35130682.93
KernTaft City89020998.10
KernTaft Union High02010481.91
KernTehachapi Unified76142323.31
KernWasco Union Elementary610036414.39
KernWasco Union High01118261.10
KingsArmona Union Elementary32016083.11
KingsCentral Union Elementary01017060.59
KingsCorcoran Joint Unified517033006.67
KingsHanford Elementary97058902.72
KingsHanford Joint Union High22037721.06
KingsKings County Office of Education57038731.01
KingsKings River-Hardwick Union Elementary0107901.27
KingsKit Carson Union Elementary1406138.16
KingsLakeside Union Elementary22065660.61
KingsLemoore Union Elementary1017031908.46
KingsLemoore Union High47022754.84
KingsPioneer Union Elementary11019101.05
KingsReef-Sunset Unified17126123.45
LakeKelseyville Unified33016943.54
LakeKonocti Unified623032448.94
LakeLakeport Unified02015581.28
LakeLucerne Elementary0102553.92
LakeMiddletown Unified23016543.02
LassenBig Valley Joint Unified20016412.20
LassenJanesville Union Elementary0103512.85
LassenJohnstonville Elementary12020414.71
LassenLassen County Office of Education14025200.00
LassenLassen Union High0208392.38
LassenRavendale-Termo Elementary0107081.41
LassenRichmond Elementary0102124.72
LassenWestwood Unified0303887.73
Los AngelesABC Unified221208630.24
Los AngelesActon-Agua Dulce Unified20074750.27
Los AngelesAntelope Valley Union High1570241270.91
Los AngelesArcadia Unified13095230.42
Los AngelesAzusa Unified53089000.90
Los AngelesBassett Unified02037890.53
Los AngelesBellflower Unified800126780.63
Los AngelesBonita Unified400102690.39
Los AngelesBurbank Unified180160810.56
Los AngelesCastaic Union20023540.85
Los AngelesCentinela Valley Union High101076821.43
Los AngelesCharter Oak Unified12049540.61
Los AngelesClaremont Unified11069730.29
Los AngelesCompton Unified1500218350.69
Los AngelesCovina-Valley Unified110119060.17
Los AngelesCulver City Unified23067630.74
Los AngelesDowney Unified310226490.18
Los AngelesDuarte Unified30038530.78
Los AngelesEast Whittier City Elementary01088910.11
Los AngelesEastside Union Elementary16034242.04
Los AngelesEl Monte City20087090.23
Los AngelesEl Monte Union High01091150.11
Los AngelesEl Rancho Unified13088660.45
Los AngelesGlendale Unified1110261170.46
Los AngelesGlendora Unified21076070.39
Los AngelesHacienda la Puente Unified300193670.15
Los AngelesHawthorne10086890.12
Los AngelesInglewood Unified160131620.53
Los AngelesKeppel Union Elementary21026271.14
Los AngelesLa Canada Unified01040930.24
Los AngelesLancaster Elementary1620152911.18
Los AngelesLas Virgenes Unified340113740.62
Los AngelesLawndale Elementary10061920.16
Los AngelesLittle Lake City Elementary12043820.68
Los AngelesLong Beach Unified7473778120.73
Los AngelesLos Angeles County Office of Education29076871.43
Los AngelesLos Angeles Unified387401746393371.35
Los AngelesLynwood Unified640148300.67
Los AngelesManhattan Beach Unified12067740.44
Los AngelesMontebello Unified090283230.32
Los AngelesNewhall24066500.90
Los AngelesNorwalk-La Mirada Unified810187040.48
Los AngelesPalmdale Elementary2120220060.64
Los AngelesPalos Verdes Peninsula Unified100114990.09
Los AngelesParamount Unified710155470.51
Los AngelesPasadena Unified9100184921.03
Los AngelesPomona Unified1100247160.45
Los AngelesRedondo Beach Unified10095290.10
Los AngelesRowland Unified110146030.14
Los AngelesSan Gabriel Unified10064300.16
Los AngelesSanta Monica-Malibu Unified021112490.27
Los AngelesSouth Pasadena Unified11047330.42
Los AngelesSulphur Springs Union12053830.56
Los AngelesTemple City Unified02058930.34
Los AngelesTorrance Unified260238850.33
Los AngelesWalnut Valley Unified010144680.07
Los AngelesWest Covina Unified500137120.36
Los AngelesWestside Union Elementary152090701.87
Los AngelesWilliam S. Hart Union High670271550.48
MaderaBass Lake Joint Union Elementary1108652.31
MaderaChawanakee Unified15010755.58
MaderaChowchilla Elementary14021682.31
MaderaChowchilla Union High01010870.92
MaderaGolden Valley Unified20018801.06
MaderaMadera County Office of Education115095816.70
MaderaMadera Unified23400205303.07
MaderaRaymond-Knowles Union Elementary0109011.11
MarinDixie Elementary01019890.50
MarinMarin County Office of Education12025711.67
MarinMill Valley Elementary11032280.62
MarinNovato Unified16079730.88
MarinReed Union Elementary12015401.95
MarinRoss Elementary1003852.60
MarinRoss Valley Elementary24023302.58
MarinSan Rafael City Elementary24047491.26
MarinSan Rafael City High10024200.41
MarinShoreline Unified0205133.90
MariposaMariposa County Unified11018711.07
MendocinoAnderson Valley Unified2305229.58
MendocinoFort Bragg Unified19019345.17
MendocinoLaytonville Unified22039510.13
MendocinoMendocino County Office of Education0209321.51
MendocinoMendocino Unified0105431.84
MendocinoPoint Arena Joint Union High02114520.69
MendocinoPotter Valley Community Unified03027610.87
MendocinoRound Valley Unified1204277.03
MendocinoUkiah Unified722165114.61
MendocinoWillits Unified14018702.67
MercedAtwater Elementary66048992.45
MercedBallico-Cressey Elementary0103822.62
MercedDelhi Unified28026693.75
MercedEl Nido Elementary0101536.54
MercedGustine Unified32018882.65
MercedHilmar Unified11022910.87
MercedLe Grand Union High1005041.98
MercedLivingston Union11025580.78
MercedLos Banos Unified8320105203.80
MercedMcSwain Union Elementary0208222.43
MercedMerced City Elementary3360108883.58
MercedMerced County Office of Education19110117325.58
MercedMerced Union High7270102033.33
MercedPlainsburg Union Elementary11011916.81
MercedPlanada Elementary1408006.25
ModocModoc County Office of Education14040125.00
ModocModoc Joint Unified0208322.40
ModocSurprise Valley Joint Unified0101377.30
MonoEastern Sierra Unified1203777.96
MonoMammoth Unified01011930.84
MontereyCarmel Unified01025100.40
MontereyGonzales Unified715124239.49
MontereyGreenfield Union Elementary724035108.83
MontereyMission Union Elementary1001287.81
MontereyMonterey County Office of Education15019433.09
MontereyMonterey Peninsula Unified790106331.50
MontereyNorth Monterey County Unified82045552.20
MontereySalinas City Elementary723191053.40
MontereySalinas Union High19150146912.31
MontereySan Antonio Union Elementary1001636.13
MontereySan Ardo Union Elementary0101039.71
MontereySanta Rita Union Elementary70034252.04
MontereySoledad Unified831048618.02
MontereySouth Monterey County Joint Union High34021593.24
MontereyWashington Union Elementary0108881.13
NapaNapa County Office of Education12011127.03
NapaNapa Valley Unified12153184791.62
NevadaGrass Valley Elementary11017451.15
NevadaNevada County Office of Education04035201.14
NevadaNevada Joint Union High22129471.70
NevadaTwin Ridges Elementary0101059.52
OrangeAnaheim Union High520312760.22
OrangeBrea-Olinda Unified20058560.34
OrangeCapistrano Unified400538780.07
OrangeCentralia Elementary10044370.23
OrangeFountain Valley Elementary10063710.16
OrangeFullerton Elementary130135200.30
OrangeFullerton Joint Union High110142350.14
OrangeGarden Grove Unified0180452520.40
OrangeHuntington Beach Union High100160480.06
OrangeIrvine Unified700323190.22
OrangeLa Habra City Elementary01049130.20
OrangeLaguna Beach Unified03030290.99
OrangeNewport-Mesa Unified0100217360.46
OrangeOcean View010114420.09
OrangeOrange County Department of Education21050370.60
OrangeOrange Unified660288990.42
OrangePlacentia-Yorba Linda Unified300258260.12
OrangeSaddleback Valley Unified530287060.28
OrangeSanta Ana Unified600559090.11
OrangeTustin Unified210240790.12
PlacerAuburn Union Elementary01020420.49
PlacerColfax Elementary1003273.06
PlacerDry Creek Joint Elementary02066940.30
PlacerForesthill Union Elementary1003992.51
PlacerLoomis Union Elementary21040270.74
PlacerNewcastle Elementary11021020.95
PlacerPlacer County Office of Education0106731.49
PlacerPlacer Hills Union Elementary1007691.30
PlacerPlacer Union High10041040.24
PlacerRocklin Unified130129850.31
PlacerRoseville City Elementary100100840.10
PlacerRoseville Joint Union High100102000.10
PlacerTahoe-Truckee Unified22040101.00
PlacerWestern Placer Unified01090920.11
PlumasPlumas County Office of Education0102441.67
PlumasPlumas Unified22021721.84
RiversideAlvord Unified320194660.26
RiversideBanning Unified31045270.88
RiversideBeaumont Unified03096270.31
RiversideCoachella Valley Unified1870188611.33
RiversideCorona-Norco Unified1260533540.51
RiversideDesert Sands Unified11152287190.97
RiversideHemet Unified8290214801.72
RiversideJurupa Unified720192820.47
RiversideLake Elsinore Unified560222050.50
RiversideMenifee Union Elementary250112260.62
RiversideMoreno Valley Unified19140339420.97
RiversideMurrieta Valley Unified4221228251.18
RiversideNuview Union14026881.86
RiversidePalm Springs Unified750233480.51
RiversidePalo Verde Unified35531494.13
RiversidePerris Elementary01058820.17
RiversidePerris Union High800107440.74
RiversideRiverside County Office of Education2415083684.66
RiversideRiverside Unified740424620.26
RiversideSan Jacinto Unified670110541.18
RiversideTemecula Valley Unified481299960.43
RiversideVal Verde Unified7150198621.11
SacramentoArcohe Union Elementary32041212.14
SacramentoElk Grove Unified12420627670.86
SacramentoElverta Joint Elementary2003286.10
SacramentoFolsom-Cordova Unified310198650.20
SacramentoGalt Joint Union Elementary01036510.27
SacramentoGalt Joint Union High31022341.79
SacramentoNatomas Unified630142980.63
SacramentoRobla Elementary20021700.92
SacramentoSacramento City Unified27590468431.84
SacramentoSacramento County Office of Education50020392.45
SacramentoSan Juan Unified11410495641.05
SacramentoTwin Rivers Unified9170311370.84
San BenitoAromas/San Juan Unified14011504.35
San BenitoHollister710056543.01
San BenitoJefferson Elementary10094920.11
San BenitoSan Benito County Office of Education2006729.85
San BenitoSan Benito High18030102.99
San BenitoSouthside Elementary0102414.15
San BernardinoAdelanto Elementary300109700.27
San BernardinoAlta Loma Elementary01059060.17
San BernardinoApple Valley Unified8160142381.69
San BernardinoBarstow Unified712060243.15
San BernardinoBear Valley Unified10022960.44
San BernardinoCentral Elementary10046820.21
San BernardinoChaffey Joint Union High110243610.08
San BernardinoChino Valley Unified420293140.20
San BernardinoColton Joint Unified1100232880.47
San BernardinoEtiwanda Elementary380138660.79
San BernardinoFontana Unified1021387420.34
San BernardinoHesperia Unified28231239882.17
San BernardinoLucerne Valley Unified03023461.28
San BernardinoMorongo Unified3130102651.56
San BernardinoOntario-Montclair420219520.27
San BernardinoOro Grande Elementary61037111.89
San BernardinoRedlands Unified200212640.09
San BernardinoRialto Unified930259940.46
San BernardinoRim of the World Unified31036081.11
San BernardinoSan Bernardino City Unified36150533030.96
San BernardinoSan Bernardino County Office of Education35128723.13
San BernardinoSilver Valley Unified15021042.85
San BernardinoSnowline Joint Unified59077981.80
San BernardinoTrona Joint Unified1102557.84
San BernardinoUpland Unified740111380.99
San BernardinoVictor Elementary15150123062.44
San BernardinoVictor Valley Union High11161138122.03
San BernardinoYucaipa-Calimesa Joint Unified52098890.71
San DiegoAlpine Union Elementary11017071.17
San DiegoBonsall Unified10029590.34
San DiegoBorrego Springs Unified0207722.59
San DiegoCardiff Elementary1107302.74
San DiegoChula Vista Elementary891302300.60
San DiegoEscondido Union High200195670.10
San DiegoFallbrook Union Elementary04050560.79
San DiegoFallbrook Union High12023121.30
San DiegoGrossmont Union High670218600.59
San DiegoLa Mesa-Spring Valley240121970.49
San DiegoLakeside Union Elementary05065660.76
San DiegoMountain Empire Unified13028311.41
San DiegoNational Elementary10060500.17
San DiegoOceanside Unified3140210240.81
San DiegoPoway Unified410357710.14
San DiegoRamona City Unified01055930.18
San DiegoSan Diego County Office of Education30034860.86
San DiegoSan Diego Unified5323501293802.23
San DiegoSan Dieguito Union High100127260.08
San DiegoSan Marcos Unified4170208131.01
San DiegoSan Ysidro Elementary45048081.87
San DiegoSouth Bay Union01027360.37
San DiegoSweetwater Union High30550410502.07
San DiegoValley Center-Pauma Unified24040871.47
San DiegoVista Unified330252440.24
San DiegoWarner Unified01011450.87
San FranciscoSan Francisco Unified6121716588654.99
San JoaquinBanta Elementary10012020.83
San JoaquinEscalon Unified20028350.71
San JoaquinJefferson Elementary02094920.21
San JoaquinLincoln Unified2218092984.30
San JoaquinLinden Unified43022233.15
San JoaquinLodi Unified3490303951.41
San JoaquinManteca Unified24222232042.07
San JoaquinNew Jerusalem Elementary76050152.59
San JoaquinRipon Unified40039601.01
San JoaquinSan Joaquin County Office of Education14271358511.72
San JoaquinStockton Unified51800403243.25
San JoaquinTracy Joint Unified10220167021.92
San Luis ObispoAtascadero Unified21047010.64
San Luis ObispoLucia Mar Unified2140107041.49
San Luis ObispoPaso Robles Joint Unified24067140.89
San Luis ObispoSan Luis Coastal Unified02076380.26
San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo County Office of Education0404778.39
San MateoBayshore Elementary1203867.77
San MateoBurlingame Elementary20033530.60
San MateoJefferson Elementary33071370.84
San MateoJefferson Union High73049262.03
San MateoLa Honda-Pescadero Unified0103293.04
San MateoLas Lomitas Elementary01013820.72
San MateoMenlo Park City Elementary17029432.72
San MateoMillbrae Elementary33024312.47
San MateoPacifica03032050.94
San MateoRavenswood City Elementary21040580.74
San MateoRedwood City Elementary423191013.08
San MateoSan Carlos Elementary24035241.70
San MateoSan Mateo County Office of Education14030816.23
San MateoSan Mateo Union High43086260.81
San MateoSan Mateo-Foster City500119770.42
San MateoSequoia Union High45097620.92
San MateoSouth San Francisco Unified810189412.13
San MateoWoodside Elementary0204094.89
Santa BarbaraBlochman Union Elementary02012421.61
Santa BarbaraBuellton Union Elementary0506128.17
Santa BarbaraCarpinteria Unified03022271.35
Santa BarbaraHope Elementary01012490.80
Santa BarbaraLompoc Unified2141102151.66
Santa BarbaraLos Olivos Elementary0101725.81
Santa BarbaraOrcutt Union Elementary25052661.33
Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara County Office of Education06027621.74
Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara Unified1100154530.71
Santa BarbaraSanta Maria Joint Union High08079001.01
Santa BarbaraSanta Maria-Bonita050165840.30
Santa BarbaraSanta Ynez Valley Union High0209972.01
Santa ClaraAlum Rock Union Elementary17160120682.73
Santa ClaraBerryessa Union Elementary40074520.54
Santa ClaraCampbell Union High11076760.26
Santa ClaraCupertino Union3120189480.79
Santa ClaraEast Side Union High14341266841.84
Santa ClaraEvergreen Elementary120122820.24
Santa ClaraFranklin-McKinley Elementary130111140.36
Santa ClaraFremont Union High910107360.93
Santa ClaraGilroy Unified8140118521.86
Santa ClaraLos Altos Elementary42046381.29
Santa ClaraMilpitas Unified560102911.07
Santa ClaraMorgan Hill Unified713091352.19
Santa ClaraMountain View Whisman25050841.38
Santa ClaraMountain View-Los Altos Union High31040280.99
Santa ClaraOak Grove Elementary540106320.85
Santa ClaraPalo Alto Unified740124850.88
Santa ClaraSan Jose Unified18360324541.66
Santa ClaraSanta Clara County Office of Education9190107952.59
Santa ClaraSanta Clara Unified6100153881.04
Santa ClaraSunnyvale53066401.20
Santa ClaraUnion Elementary44056921.41
Santa CruzLive Oak Elementary03021061.42
Santa CruzPajaro Valley Unified14160203541.47
Santa CruzSan Lorenzo Valley Unified01046440.22
Santa CruzSanta Cruz City Elementary20022940.87
Santa CruzSanta Cruz City High35046431.72
Santa CruzSanta Cruz County Office of Education11013521.48
Santa CruzScotts Valley Unified21025451.18
Santa CruzSoquel Union Elementary02019791.01
ShastaAnderson Union High11018441.08
ShastaBella Vista Elementary1203518.55
ShastaBlack Butte Union Elementary0102014.98
ShastaCascade Union Elementary36011038.16
ShastaCastle Rock Union Elementary0105817.24
ShastaColumbia Elementary0307553.97
ShastaCottonwood Union Elementary05010974.56
ShastaEnterprise Elementary18036782.45
ShastaFall River Joint Unified12011842.53
ShastaGateway Unified05034291.46
ShastaGrant Elementary0106141.63
ShastaHappy Valley Union Elementary0105012.00
ShastaJunction Elementary0103043.29
ShastaNorth Cow Creek Elementary0202388.40
ShastaOak Run Elementary0208224.39
ShastaPacheco Union Elementary1005981.67
ShastaRedding Elementary06033451.79
ShastaShasta County Office of Education1206414.68
ShastaShasta Union High11056720.35
SierraSierra-Plumas Joint Unified0203815.25
SiskiyouButte Valley Unified13029913.38
SiskiyouDelphic Elementary0104621.74
SiskiyouGrenada Elementary0101815.52
SiskiyouLittle Shasta Elementary0106166.67
SiskiyouMontague Elementary0101915.24
SiskiyouScott Valley Unified1106473.09
SiskiyouSiskiyou County Office of Education1305047.94
SiskiyouSiskiyou Union High1205995.01
SiskiyouWeed Union Elementary0202418.30
SiskiyouYreka Union Elementary0109621.04
SiskiyouYreka Union High1016453.10
SolanoBenicia Unified11149470.61
SolanoDixon Unified23037461.33
SolanoFairfield-Suisun Unified12442215542.69
SolanoSolano County Office of Education111048824.59
SolanoTravis Unified33053951.11
SolanoVacaville Unified4120128411.25
SolanoVallejo City Unified12305147363.19
SonomaBennett Valley Union Elementary01010350.97
SonomaCloverdale Unified24013964.30
SonomaCotati-Rohnert Park Unified73063721.57
SonomaHealdsburg Unified11016741.19
SonomaLiberty Elementary10013390.75
SonomaPetaluma City Elementary21024521.22
SonomaPetaluma Joint Union High30053370.56
SonomaPiner-Olivet Union Elementary10014150.71
SonomaSanta Rosa Elementary10054220.18
SonomaSanta Rosa High690112951.33
SonomaSonoma County Office of Education2406159.76
SonomaSonoma Valley Unified48046102.60
SonomaWest Sonoma County Union High01020150.50
SonomaWindsor Unified12053490.56
StanislausCeres Unified9140142691.61
StanislausDenair Unified14012763.92
StanislausEmpire Union Elementary35030492.62
StanislausHart-Ransom Union Elementary11011421.75
StanislausModesto City Elementary3120152720.98
StanislausModesto City High2120151000.93
StanislausNewman-Crows Landing Unified38029403.74
StanislausOakdale Joint Unified27053001.70
StanislausPatterson Joint Unified116060312.82
StanislausRiverbank Unified58028544.56
StanislausSalida Union Elementary11025020.80
StanislausStanislaus County Office of Education610023326.86
StanislausStanislaus Union Elementary43034052.06
StanislausSylvan Union Elementary106084841.89
StanislausTurlock Unified680140910.99
StanislausValley Home Joint Elementary0101476.80
StanislausWaterford Unified31038771.03
SutterLive Oak Unified20018101.10
SutterMeridian Elementary10010320.97
SutterSutter County Office of Education14043511.49
SutterYuba City Unified670133740.97
TehamaAntelope Elementary0207582.64
TehamaCorning Union Elementary02020740.96
TehamaCorning Union High1209243.25
TehamaGerber Union Elementary1004152.41
TehamaLos Molinos Unified0105741.74
TehamaRed Bluff Union Elementary32021782.30
TrinityMountain Valley Unified1002753.64
TrinityTrinity Alps Unified1106762.96
TulareAllensworth Elementary0108611.63
TulareAlpaugh Unified2407408.11
TulareAlta Vista Elementary0205723.50
TulareBurton Elementary1623244709.17
TulareColumbine Elementary0101965.10
TulareCutler-Orosi Joint Unified714040955.13
TulareDinuba Unified620366384.37
TulareDucor Union Elementary03015818.99
TulareEarlimart Elementary19119615.61
TulareExeter Unified410028864.85
TulareFarmersville Unified02025800.78
TulareHope Elementary12012492.40
TulareLiberty Elementary33013394.48
TulareLindsay Unified97142374.01
TulareMonson-Sultana Joint Union Elementary0104512.22
TulareOak Valley Union Elementary1005581.79
TularePalo Verde Union Elementary0205363.73
TularePixley Union Elementary28011099.02
TularePleasant View Elementary28048620.58
TularePorterville Unified20321141093.76
TulareRichgrove Elementary1106513.07
TulareRockford Elementary18037024.32
TulareSequoia Union Elementary1003103.23
TulareStone Corral Elementary1106643.01
TulareStrathmore Union Elementary0108411.19
TulareSundale Union Elementary1108122.46
TulareSunnyside Union Elementary1103485.75
TulareTerra Bella Union Elementary1109232.17
TulareThree Rivers Union Elementary1001436.99
TulareTulare County Office of Education98126526.79
TulareTulare Joint Union High52053581.31
TulareVisalia Unified41675285463.96
TulareWaukena Joint Union Elementary0202398.37
TulareWoodlake Unified611127726.49
TuolumneBig Oak Flat-Groveland Unified0103053.28
TuolumneCurtis Creek Elementary2104626.49
TuolumneJamestown Elementary0104422.26
TuolumneSonora Union High02010361.93
TuolumneSoulsbyville Elementary1005012.00
TuolumneSummerville Elementary1004032.48
VenturaBriggs Elementary0105751.74
VenturaConejo Valley Unified151193650.36
VenturaFillmore Unified10037570.27
VenturaHueneme Elementary21084580.35
VenturaMoorpark Unified13065990.61
VenturaOak Park Unified01046380.22
VenturaOjai Unified17126393.41
VenturaOxnard Union High3181172711.27
VenturaRio Elementary03050260.60
VenturaSanta Paula Unified43055571.26
VenturaSimi Valley Unified150172230.35
VenturaVentura County Office of Education54031002.90
VenturaVentura Unified5100171250.88
YoloDavis Joint Unified22185620.58
YoloEsparto Unified0109711.03
YoloWashington Unified240110120.54
YoloWinters Joint Unified10015250.66
YoloWoodland Joint Unified5150101371.97
YoloYolo County Office of Education36051917.34
YubaMarysville Joint Unified25098040.71
YubaWheatland Union High1007101.41
YubaYuba County Office of Education57059520.17
YubaYuba County Office of Education57059520.17

Source: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing / EdSource

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