California’s teacher shortage is worsening, with many districts struggling to find enough qualified teachers to fill vacancies, according to a new statewide survey by the Learning Policy Institute and the California School Boards Association.
Among the 211 districts that participated in the survey – about a fifth of all the state’s districts – 75 percent indicated having a shortage of qualified teachers for the current 2016-17 school year, with the greatest needs in large cities and for those seeking special education teachers.
The survey findings are part of a policy brief, “California Teacher Shortages: A Persistent Problem,” that was released Wednesday. More than 80 percent of the districts that reported shortages said their shortages have grown worse compared with three years ago.
Districts “are experiencing alarming rates of teacher shortages,” the authors wrote. “A highly competent teacher workforce is a necessary foundation for improving children’s educational outcomes, especially for those who rely most on schools for their success.”
About 83 percent of districts with high concentrations of English learners, low-income students and minority students reported having teacher shortages.
The survey “has enabled us to hear directly from district leaders who are on the front lines of this crisis, including many who are struggling to serve their students well in the face of shrinking ranks of qualified teachers and swelling class sizes,” Linda Darling-Hammond, president of the Learning Policy Institute, said in a statement.
In September, the institute released a report that concluded that the United States is experiencing the worst shortage of teachers since 1990, with school districts nationwide needing to hire up to 300,000 new teachers annually through the 2017-18 school year.
Of districts reporting shortages in the California survey, 62 percent said they did not have enough high school teachers, 60 percent reported a shortage of middle school teachers and 37 percent reported a shortage of elementary teachers.
These were among the survey’s key findings:
- 14 percent of districts with shortages reported not having enough bilingual education teachers;
- 87 percent of districts in large cities reported shortages, compared with 82 percent in rural areas, 72 percent in towns and 69 percent in suburbs;
- Of districts with shortages, 88 percent said they didn’t have enough special education teachers, 58 percent had a shortage of math teachers and 57 percent had a shortage of science teachers;
- 7 percent of districts also are beginning to experience shortages of principals and district-level administrators.
District officials said the shortages are driven by a declining supply of teachers, combined with high turnover rates and a growing number of retirements.
Districts reported a variety of methods for addressing their shortages. About 55 percent of vacancies were filled by teachers with emergency/temporary credentials, 24 percent were filled with long-term substitutes, 17 percent left the position vacant, 9 percent increased class sizes because of too few teachers, and 8 percent cancelled courses.
The survey “has enabled us to hear directly from district leaders who are on the front lines of this crisis, including many who are struggling to serve their students well in the face of shrinking ranks of qualified teachers and swelling class sizes,” said Linda Darling-Hammond, president of the Learning Policy Institute.
The survey was sent to superintendents and other leaders from 244 districts across the state from the start of the school year through October. Learning Policy Institute researcher and co-author of the brief Leib Sutcher said the demographics of the 211 districts that responded generally reflect the demographics of the state’s 1,025 school districts.
At the beginning of the school year, an EdSource survey found that the the state’s 25 largest school districts were able to hire enough qualified teachers to fill most vacancies by the time classes began. It also found that eight of the largest districts had no unfilled positions on the first day of classes, and none of the 25 had more than 80 unfilled vacancies.
Sutcher said EdSource’s findings didn’t necessarily conflict with the survey released Wednesday. A district without a vacancy can still be experiencing a teacher shortage, he said.
“Some districts that didn’t report any vacancies may have been forced to increase class sizes and cancel courses,” he said. “Pupil-teacher ratios have been growing even as districts are starting to receive more state funding.”
Many of these 25 largest districts are having a hard time lowering class sizes because they can’t find enough qualified teachers, he said, arguing that if there were a larger pool of candidates, districts would have the opportunity to create or restore jobs that have been eliminated.
The new survey also asked districts what strategies or initiatives they’re developing to help recruit teachers. About 93 percent of respondents said they are creating or improving teacher preparation programs, including building stronger relationships with teacher colleges, and expanding or creating residency programs.
Seventy-five percent said they’re adopting stronger financial incentives, including raising salaries, adding stipends for high-need fields and offering bonuses to new teachers.
Last month, a report from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing found that enrollments in teacher preparation programs in California have increased for the first time in 13 years, a sign that more students are again entering the profession.
Sutcher said the districts’ recruiting initiatives and the enrollment growth in teacher preparation programs are helping address the shortage. But it’s currently not enough to overcome the deficit, he said.
“We’re not seeing the necessary growth in the key jobs, special education, science and math,” Sutcher said. “It’s not just about getting people in the pipeline. It’s about getting them where we need them to be.”
To get more reports like this one, click here to sign up for EdSource’s no-cost daily email on latest developments in education.
We welcome your comments. All comments are moderated for civility, relevance and other considerations. Click here for EdSource's Comments Policy.
J. Fiero 6 years ago6 years ago
As a new credentialed science teacher, I received zero support and help to obtain my credential and I am weeks away from living in my car and my credit score is ruined because I want to be a teacher. To be a "qualified" teacher, one must do student teaching which is staying at the school the whole time your master teacher is there, lesson planning and grade for free. Yep that is correct. … Read More
As a new credentialed science teacher, I received zero support and help to obtain my credential and I am weeks away from living in my car and my credit score is ruined because I want to be a teacher. To be a “qualified” teacher, one must do student teaching which is staying at the school the whole time your master teacher is there, lesson planning and grade for free.
Yep that is correct. I gave 800+ hours of free time to get my credential and now I do not have enough money to pay my rent. I lived through those six months off a small loan I was allowed. (They said the maximum, but I don’t know of any single person in Southern California that can live off $3,000 for six months.) While you are completing these 800+ hours, there are two papers over 40 pages of writing that have to be completed by certain dates called TPAs. These TPAs do not show if you are a good teacher, but rather if you can write about good teaching. I slept four hours every night for six months to complete all the necessary work for all the requirements of earning that credential. I was unable to find time to work and have any income. I am now drowning in debt, a horrible credit score (When I worked as an engineer my credit score was 730; after six months of dedicating my life to my community to become a teacher, I am at 430) I can’t find a place to live that will accept my credit score and I could not afford to pay my rent. I begged people at the school for help but there are no programs to help. I now have school debt of over $60,000 and credit card debt of $12,000. I am living in a car, and I have not been accepted for a teaching position yet and at least three months away from a paycheck. My classmates are much better off due to the fact they have family/or married and had support to pay bills and rent. I live alone and I do not have any family to speak of. I received the same loans as other students that got to live rent free.
And California wonders why there is a shortage in qualified teachers.
Tom 6 years ago6 years ago
What I find is that money is not such much the problem. Teachers are overworked; they have tons of paperwork and are treated as second-class citizens. Then they have to hold their breath that they won’t get laid off.
Nettie Carroll 6 years ago6 years ago
The previous 4 commenters make excellent points. I have struggled through California's/CTC's/Pearson's nearly impenetrable wall to prove I care about all children and have a heart to teach. Once I completed my B.A. In Liberal Arts from a highly acclaimed university I dove straight into a credential program through CalState TEACH. I have benefitted greatly from the process, but sadly, a HUGE part of getting through was test after test, assessment after assessment, and now, … Read More
The previous 4 commenters make excellent points. I have struggled through California’s/CTC’s/Pearson’s nearly impenetrable wall to prove I care about all children and have a heart to teach. Once I completed my B.A. In Liberal Arts from a highly acclaimed university I dove straight into a credential program through CalState TEACH. I have benefitted greatly from the process, but sadly, a HUGE part of getting through was test after test, assessment after assessment, and now, the overwhelming demands of the edTPA have me stalled. Why must we prove ourselves time and time again? I passed courses that taught me classroom management, differentiated learning skills, instruction for English learners and unique needs. Of course you all know this merely scratches the surface. I know Spanish and ASL. I have worked with special needs students for several years. I paid for, took, and passed the CBEST, CSET, RICA, and am now attempting my 2nd go at the edTPA, and will give another $300 for the privilege.
And let us not forget that all this is done while running a home, raising children, working, at times for free in my case, in student teaching, and doing my taxes on time. Vacations are something I might enjoy if I ever retire. Teacher candidates are overstressed, overassessed, undermined, and underpaid. I am 37 years old! I just want to teach! I shouldn’t have to move to another state to fulfill this dream.
Bridget Highfill 6 years ago6 years ago
With public education under fire for more than 30 years that I know of, it is no wonder that young people are not looking to careers in education. We are paid lower than any other profession. Politicians and the media never tire of highlighting the “failure of public education.” So why would our educated youth enter a profession in which they are sure to be underpaid and labeled a failure?
Nettie Carroll 6 years ago6 years ago
So well said Bridget! I have come so far and done so much, by the grace of God, yet I will not receive a recommendation for a credential until I pass edTPA, another “proof” that I can be in a classroom (after just finishing a great teacher prep program taking 18 months). I do not feel affirmed or validated by the commission though I have worked hard and paid much to be able to serve children!
Jon DiTomaso 6 years ago6 years ago
I would love to teach in California. However, you require an ESL authorization that doesn't exist where I live. You also charge thousands of dollars for new teacher induction that I can't afford, plus it's a cost you shouldn't be passing on to me anyway. It's a shame you're doing everything you can to keep teachers away. On top of that, your salaries don't match the extremely high housing costs in many areas. … Read More
I would love to teach in California. However, you require an ESL authorization that doesn’t exist where I live. You also charge thousands of dollars for new teacher induction that I can’t afford, plus it’s a cost you shouldn’t be passing on to me anyway. It’s a shame you’re doing everything you can to keep teachers away. On top of that, your salaries don’t match the extremely high housing costs in many areas. Guess what? All of this causes a teacher shortage! Do you really need to hire experts to figure this out?
Jeff Camp 6 years ago6 years ago
Ed100.org did a roundup recently of the California teacher shortage problem to put the ingredients in context. This is a challenge that was a long time in the making, and that therefore may take a considerable time to solve. https://ed100.org/blog/teacher-shortage
SD Parent 6 years ago6 years ago
With the passage of Prop 58, it will become even more difficult to find qualified teachers. It means that a significant portion of teachers must not only need a teaching credential but also must be fluent in a second language (primarily Spanish) and obtain a bilingual authorization. That will considerably narrow the pool of students in education programs who are actually qualified for the positions that will be opening starting next year.